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This was a amazing read. I work in a funeral home and know about anatomicals. I used to go on removals at night and pick up anatomical donors all the time. Our funeral home now does not pick up anatomical donors. This was a amazing read for those who like to read about the death trade. Annie Cheney done a amazing job on her research, some treat the dead like they are in a retail supermarket. I highly suggest this book .
A very interesting and well written acc of the under belly of a globe not known to most people. The choice to donate one's body to further education and research in health care is a noble one. This book exposes so of the less than honest practices that affect the public as well as those who no longer can defend themselves,the donated human cadaver. This well written take on and exposes the unscrupulous practices that can turn a noble intended want to donated into a risky scheme for profit by the unscrupulous body brokers
Having just fallen down the rabbit hole myself into this wretched corner of the universe (Google Sunset Mesa Funeral Home, Montrose Colorado, which was just raided by the FBI for stealing bodies, chopping them up, and selling them all over the world--including my best mate who died latest year) I found this book compelling, well written, and well researched. I could have saved a lot of time googling all this nasty crap up had I just read this book first. At first I believed my private experience with this.....EVIL was a local isolated anomaly. Then I began to understand that it is a much bigger network. Cheney's book brought me to understand that this has been going on for a long, long time and will continue to go on as long as the demand for dead bodies isn't addressed. There are a lot of people in the globe who are morbid and grotesque, and hiding behind "medical research".
It's good.... for primary stuff.. I don't feel like I can obtain a amazing feel for the stock shop because #1 I can't short. #2 I can't make orders at SPECIFIC prices. And, #3 The charts are VERY hard to read. I can't see the specific dates of certain trends and dips or the specific prices. I also wish to see the sell/buy price on the chart. The easiest method to fkx this is to add a zoom feature. I also would love to back up the "current" chart into yesterday. This application has potential to be the best stock application on the market. However, with these shortcomings, I'm afraid it's only par with the others....
Very amazing simulation while still using true data, but if it had any ytical tools besides easy charts it would obtain the 5th star. Aswell it doesn't contain a volume option when looking into a stock, which is unusual since volume us such an necessary movement indicator .
This application is amazing for investment practice! Some improvements could be: Ability to edit orders (rather than only delete and reorder options) Present price per stock in portfolio (rather than just %change and value increase) Let for order (buy and sell) organization Let for current stock organization Thanks for a amazing app!
This application is nice for those looking to experience the stock shop without losing true money. The visual is nice to look at also. It also has stops, and limits which other stock apps don't have. My only true critique about the application is the news/articles about the stock you are looking at. In the application "stock trainer," when you click on a stock, at the bottom of the page are news, and articles about the company. I want this application had that feature. Other than that this is a amazing application to learn how to invest, sell, and buy stocks
Narrowly, Power Brokers is the story of the men who built and shaped America's electric power industry. Broadly, Power Brokers is a story of what is popularly derided as "crony capitalism" - how men of ambition manipulated government regulation to build vast empires insulated from competition. Lambert spares neither the left nor the right and shows how whether the government was attempting to make highly-regulated local monopolies or trying to deregulate under pressure from advocates of free markets, the winners were always the Power Brokers, who used campaign contributions and their own expertise to manipulate elected officials. From Samuel Insull to Ken Lay, Lambert brings to life the characters behind the industry, their rags-to-riches tales, their hubris, and their deft ear for the political causes of their times. The book is crisply written and packed with basic research and clever legal interpretations.
This is a long book, but very informative. You learn more about the record industry than you ever wish to really know. Some of it will create you think twice about how some of the melody industries largest success storys really became so popular and why others flopped. Again, a lot of reading, but well worth the investment.
Amazing book, the history of the melody business. More specifically the story of CBS records (the most power strong label back in the days), and its interactions with artists, lawyers, mafiosi, other records labels, detectives, etc) from the 50's through the 80's. Lot's of very interesting information about the inner workings of the industry along with its shady practices. Once you read it, go see Walter Yetnikoff's reaction to this book, It's worth watching it lol
Nice to know that the real motives of Selig, Reinsdorf & company were always about breaking the players union, rather than working with them. Ultra greedy business men, using a special monopoly to test and bypass established labor law and return players to mere e players union was partially to blame for failing to listen to their own members who warned them of the extent of PED's in the game, and therefore damage the player's credibility with the public.. The owners knew and ignored it because PED''s were making them large amounts of cash and that's all they cared about (other than their ongoing quest to break the players union).
This book is basically a history of the Saudi oil industry and bureaucracy. This was one of 4 books I bought for a class, and was by far the most dull and uninteresting. If you're looking for theories on the resource curse test Michael Ross. But if you are interested in the development of Saudi Arabia this is your book.
This book is exactly what I have been looking for! As a Notary Public, newly licensed True Estate Agent and working mom, I of course have been doing my research on fresh industry trends. However, I did not search half of this info in the latest 6 months allow alone the time it took me to read this awesome book. I think it is necessary to have a outside perspective and from someone who has so a lot of connections to top industry leaders. This book has given me so much useful info as I look at brokerages to start my True Estate Agent career. I feel confident now in saying; I know what I am getting into, that I can be successful with all of the tools available to me and that I can continue to move forward with technological advances in a method I could not have without reading this! I will be referring this book to all of my mates and colleagues on the industry!
I have known Greg for about 15 years and his passion for true estate and business has always been there. I am not surprised Greg has become a topic matter expert in True Estate and beyond! I recommend this book because it has practical and practiced tip and tips. Pick this up, you won't be disappointed!
The only reason I'm giving this book two stars instead of one is the fact that the book does include some interesting tidbits and examples of the history of the MBTI. Otherwise, it is a classic example of "paradigm paralysis" from the first words. The author's biases are clear from the beginning and by the end, it's even clearer -- the author even admits her behavior is part of her "B#%##" personality which interestingly corresponds to a possible aspect of her type.While the author lists extensive references at the end, the book is filled with comments and "interpretations" of a lot of communications that leave me wondering "where's the evidence of this?" So a lot of examples, including the author's interpretation of the thinking portrayed by a photograph -- a photograph where the expressions could be interpreted in a lot of various e book wanders back and forth with a confusing timeline that had me frequently trying to figure out the when of a particular part of the story.While statistical validity -- which others claim the book ignores in today's ver of the MBTI -- has its place, the author fails to recognize "face validity." Participants of the MBTI today see the instrument as reflecting choices they create -- and they validate the results by the importance of "verifying" the results. The author's arrogance in sarcastically calling the MBTI a "test" during her prejudiced attendance at a certification session was just one of a lot of statements that tarnished the book.
A well-written and thoroughly researched book about the Myers-Briggs, a personality try that a lot of people take for granted as accurate and predictive. Perhaps the thing that amazed me the most was how small I know about this test-and I’m a clinical psychologist! My awareness comes mostly from some of my patients referencing their “type” as if that has amazing meaning. Now I realize that this was not a part of my education because of the lack of reliability and validity of the test. Plus, personality is not static. The fact that the try has such staying power and cult-like following is just another awesome piece of e story of the development of the Myers-Briggs is beautiful fascinating as well. Originally conceived by Kathleen Briggs in the 1920’s, an intelligent, religious, housewife whose discovery of the writings of Carl Jung changed her life. She embraced the premise that personality is formed at birth and does not change. She began studying her family and neighbors, believing that if people knew and understood their “type” they would be happier and more productive people. Her daughter Isabel Briggs Myers was first her mother’s topic and later her research partner. Notes on 3 X 5 cards became try questions that lead people to learn their type along 8 various dimensions. Both women were beyond zealous in their quest. Kathleen wrote repeatedly to Dr. Jung and was eventually able to meet him. Isabel did more of the work of marketing the Myers-Briggs and was alternately embraced or laughed at by the psychology addition to telling the history of the Myers-Briggs, the author also traces the development of personality tests through history and their role in government, business, education, and dating. I know that other psychological tests were developed to meet needs that arose from WWI and WWII. The Myers-Briggs and other attempts to identify personality types really grew during the Cold Battle and beyond. The idea of identifying type and using this info to put workers in the appropriate job niche had a lot of appeal. The Myers-Briggs was also embraced because of its “all types are made equal” mentality. No type is superior to another and working according to type makes for satisfied and productive employees. George Orwell anyone?Ms. Emre ran into a lot of obstacles in writing this book, primarily from the try publishers and other keepers of the archives. She was followed, necessary papers were removed or were “missing,” and she was flatly denied access to doents at the University of Florida’s Center for Applications of Psychological Type. Perhaps they feared an unflattering book about Mrs. Briggs and Mrs. Myers. In addition to telling the story of the try developers, Ms. Emre also tells us the history of personality tests and why they still remain so necessary and interesting to us. Whether a formal written try or a Fb quiz that tells you which rock star you are, we wish to know what lurks underneath. Overall, this is an interesting and well-written book that will appeal to a lot of audiences. I gave it four stars because there were a few sections that dragged for me, though this is often the case when I read nonfiction. Still, this book was well worth my time.
Having grown up during the period this book covers and being a large melody fan, I thought I knew a small something about the melody industry. Wrong again!This book is a fascinating read into the inner workings of the business - particularly "independent promotion". I always suspected there was a fair amount of shady characters but not quite to the extent that there really were (and perhaps still are?). The author's research appears to be thorough and solid. This is not an simple read - there are a lot of names to hold track of and that I often had to go back and reread some sections but it was worth it.If you are a melody fan, particularly of the 60's - 90's you will probably search this book extremely captivating. Don't expect to read about artists (to these guys they were "product to sell" - this book focuses on the people behind the melody - and does it very well.
Highly informative, albeit a bit verbose and technical. Not for noobies to the electric power sector. Necessary for understanding how Insull made the state regulated electric monopoly corporations, and how Ken Lay destroyed California's electricity "market", and deregulation/restructuring and power markets and public vs. personal control of electricity, and why cap and trade is so successful.
This book is well written and a must read if you are in the true estate space. It covers fresh technology, unbelievable interviews from top specialists in the industry and brings to light senior aging and the complications that aging brings to all this book and be current on what’s event in true estate today.
This book has helped me in ways i had not imagined. I've always been a small intimidated with reality. This book changed that, and even brought up some questions I hadn't even thought to think of. Check it out for yourself though.
I was looking forward to reading this as have taken the MBTI at several leadership trainings and found it unbelievably helpful in understanding myself better and reasons I seem to irritate others and they irritate me when trying to work together. I also have taken a lot of other personality assessments and not found them as illuminating so was curious to understand the differences. It was interesting learning more about the mother and daughter who first made the MBTI (amazing story) and all they had to go through to be taken seriously. The author though doesn't seem interested (or seem to know anything about) the MBTI itself--how it was developed over the years, how it changed and why, what exactly it is seeking to measure compared to other personality theories (and why the differences). I was excited to test to understand better the development of the tool itself, but there is nothing on that at all. The author doesn't seem to know anything at all about theories of personality or about the MBTI itself, what it is measuring, and how it is various from other instruments (some of the others do seem like they could be used versus you as they measure negative aspects of personality like whether you are 'agreeable' or 'conscientious' or not--I would be worried to respond questions on those honestly if was sharing my results with an employer!). In fact, the author doesn't seem interested in understanding various theories of or approaches to measuring personality at all--She seems just interested in trashing all efforts to understand personality. It was disappointingly ill-informed and superficial. She just lumped all personality tests together and condemned them all, including the MBTI, which is very various from most others I have taken and which continues to inform and support me in my life and work. I am still waiting for a fascinating intellectual history of personality testing and especially of the MBTI. That will be an awesome book to read. This is not it.
I usually avoid books about sports but this book reads like a brilliant, well structured novel about the movers and shakers in baseball with names you recognize and personalities you love, or hate. They have no secrets left and no locations to hide from Jon who has been behind the sports stage and in the locker rooms most of his writing career. Read it because, it is well written by a superior author with unrelenting investigative skills and a wicked sense of humor, even if it is about about baseball!!
Okay. I'm a baseball junkie. It's simple to become engrossed in a non fiction historical piece like you're reading Daniel Silva but this book deserves that praise. Even being a season ticket holder for years and remembering all the topics , does not denigrate the author's ability to create the memories true and place them all in perspective. Even though he critiques the major players like Steinbrenner and Selig, he still gives you a fair perspective. Cudos. One of the most readable , informative,and delightful baseball books I've read. Thanks.
This was a long and depressing read for a guy who grew up loving recorded melody and who naively transferred his love of records, cassettes and CDs into love for the whole industry that provided these things.. I loved to watch the Grammy's every year and I loved weekly trips to the melody aisle or to the record shop at the mall. In short, by buying and re-buying the melody of the artists I loved, I supported these creatures who ran it all! And they are all despicable people. Every man hero in the book from Clive Davis to David Geffen to Irving Azoff to especially Walter Yetnikoff were chop throat capitalists with a capital C. That is their right but it is hard to read about their greed without getting a small upset about e main thrust of the book is the mob connection and I think that case is created beautiful clear here though the government never managed to victory the case and all the names mentioned still deny it or dismiss it to this day. As you obtain to the end of the book, you begin to be really satisfied that Napster happened and that this industry slipped a amazing deal. Capitalists like Davis and Azoff managed to search a fresh put in the fresh business model. Others, like Yetnikoff, went other is probably the definitive book on the topic and still stunning. Nice updated epilogue from 2012. Glad I read it but I am done with this particular subject.
Steffen Hertog does a unbelievable job in this book on the political economy of Saudi Arabia. He opens by asking a few questions, such as: "Why did infrastructure projects of the 70s and 80s succeed, but regulations of the 90s fail? Why did some policies obtain implemented while others foundered?"As he unpacks the institutions that form the Saudi state and narrates the history of their formation, Hertog strives to examine the successes and failures of the state at large. He argues that the kingdom has "islands of efficiency with explicit mandates to bypass state bureaucracy," on the one hand, while the government failed in three policy locations since the year 2000, on the other. The failures contain the kingdom's inability to successfully implement the laws for the Saudization of Labor, laws for foreign investments, and policies for accession into the ong Hertog's "very efficient and capable parts of the Saudi State" are the Central Bank SAMA, the national oil company ARAMCO and the state-owned petrochemical group SABEC. Unfortunately, not all Saudi state institutions turned out to be as efficient as some ministries that became fiefdoms under the exclusive control of their respective ministers, princes and commoners."Ministries of Defense and Interior, the National Guard and the Religious Bureaucracy have reached a level of internal autonomy that is almost unrivaled among modern states," according to Hertog, who writes that some Saudi institutions have become states within the create things worse, relations between the Saudi ministries have always been "vertical" rather than "horizontal." In other words, relations between the various Saudi institutions go through senior bureaucrats and princes only, rather than through mid and low level civil servants. This vertical connection between institutions of the Saudi state, "with no ruling party, no parliament, and no organized press group that can force a stronger horizontal integration of the system," has meant that the kingdom has virtually no forum to discuss regulations or their e sharp division into fiefdoms has caused inefficiencies and at times overlaps. Hertog talks about the "war of bulldozers," when a lot of contractors where assigned to the same projects. With the state's inability to resolve the differences, it was up to contractors to divide the work amongst themselves. Hertog also reports that at times, Saudi Arabia had more than "wanted" intelligence list. This means that some people might be on the black list of this security unit, but not on the list of the other.What created of the Saudi state what it is today, a mix of efficient institutions and inefficient ministries? Hertog believes that the respond lies in the "sociology of sharing the wealth." He writes that "money was used to pacify society at a political level." This, coupled with patrimonial traditions among the elite, created reforms more spite his hypothesis, Hertog is careful not to label Saudi Arabia as a rentier state per se. He argues that "theories of the rentier state, for which the kingdom has always served as a basic example, are painted with too wide a brush." The author argues that the rentier state label suggests that the government in Saudi Arabia is autonomous from society, which is not the Saudi Arabia, according to Hertog, the state "started this way," that is when the state - thanks to oil profit - was independent from society. Eventually, as the state started using cash to integrate society into its rapidly expanding bureaucracy, the state became "committed to its clients," which in turn cemented the rentier model and created it difficult to reverse.Hertog believes that oil "made it possible to build the (Saudi) state from scratch," during which "elites made heavy rent-seeking networks," with strict hierarchies centered on those elites. This created cleavages between institutions deep, and therefore reform more r those looking for a book on the political or social history of the kingdom, this is not the book (I suggest Robert Lacey's Inside the Kingdom instead). However, for those interested in a specialized public administration ysis of the Saudi state, this is certainly your book, and Hertog is your guy.
The book is obviously deeply researched and is well written. However, it's difficult to reconcile the title of the book to the content. This isn't the inside story of baseball's power brokers. It's the story of 3 men - Bud Selig, George Steinbrenner and Don Fehr. Even Fehr is somewhat marginalized as a supporting hero to the other two. The book is interesting for what it covers but, unless you accept an implied premise that no one else in baseball really matters beyond Bud and George, it's difficult to accept this book as a real view of baseball's power lig and Steinbrenner are driving forces in the league through the period of labor problems and PEDs encompassed by this book but they aren't the only people who had impacts. The title is misleading as to what you will ultimately learn in the book. What's presented is amazing but the scope is far more limited than implied in the title.
On the positive side, there was a lot of behind the scenes detail about the labor negotiations, the steroid fiasco, and the internal politics which was very well done. On the negative side, this was a very Yankees centric book. The author is clearly a Yankee fan. The rest of MLB serve as foils for the travails and triumps of the Yankees. A more overarching approach would have served the author and readers better.
Amazing info for fresh comers into the logistics industry. Its necessary to begin with a powerful foundation when starting any business. This aides in that foundational effort.
Greg Charlop distilled all the noise and chatter in true estate and condensed it into a very eye-opening, and thought-provoking blueprint for success. The true estate industry has created quantum leaps since the internet and integrated the shop around 2000. Greg takes the time to look and shop trends and ibuyers and now forward-thinking to bitcoin. This is a must-read for industry specialists as well as anyone considering a career change into true estate.
I have only started this book but have to report that the author and I have had very various experiences with the MBTI certification process and dealing with the MBTI experts at University of Florida. I cannot imagine the certification being referred to as "re-edeucation" as the author claims. Further, while preferences are natural, the MBTI community emphasizes that we all use all of the preferences all of the time. Further, "type dynamics" explains how we focus on various preferences as we mature. The emphasis is on "dynamic" not "fixed" and never evolving. It is necessary to emphasize that responsible use of the MBTI contains a verification process and does not rely on indicator results exclusively. Finally, I search the assertion that the MBTI lacks "scientific validity" to be hog wash. Volumes of reliability and validity studies are provided in a technical manual. But, I understand that couching the MBTI with mystery and "corporate villainy" will sell more books. To me that is disingenuous at best.
This is the real story of Katherine Briggs and Isabel Briggs Myers, mother and daughter, who made the Briggs-Myers Type Indicator derived from Carl Jung’s theories, which is a series of questions to support you determine your personality “type” bringing you greater understanding of yourself. In the 90s, my department at work answered these questions to learn to communicate better. I found the results insightful, and it did support me understand myself and my coworkers better. Katherine and Isabel encountered obstacles as women and Isabel, especially, was dogged, almost obsessed, with getting the indicator to the masses, though neither lived to see its amazing success. Emre calls their story “strange history” and says in the beginning of her research that there was amazing secrecy surrounding them, but she never explains why and I don’t see any huge mystery. These two women were fascinating and brilliant, but Emre’s writing bogs down the story and drags it out. Some of it is downright boring. She also tends to insert her own interpretation or opinion into info that should be left for the reader to judge. Fascinating story, but it drags due to the method it’s written
This is a well written book - that and my interest in the topic kept me going even though I started to loath some of the characters. You can't blame the author for that in non-fiction :) But what started as a light and interesting read on the plane became fairly dark. Maybe because I can relate it too much to some of other business politics I've seen? As a silver lining - I now don't mind at all the current changes in the industry, challenging though they are. I appreciated the updated chapter on the business (2010) and would like to see a 2018 modernize s especially interesting (and balancing) to read this book after you've read other opposing points of view, as say Tommy Mottola's own book on his career as President of Sony Records. Its also interesting to see how SMALL the record business was even at its peak - the number of employees and income were little compared to size of companies you routinely deal with in other industries, especially one spending as the record companies did!
This was recommended to me by a friend. We are both in the melody business. Lots of familiar names in it for me and a beautiful fair telling of what goes on. My criticism is that it focus too much on just a few players in the android game and often softens their actual persona. I guess that might have been a method to stay off a hit list. But for those of you that think the business is fair and you can go as far as your talent lets you, it should present you is as corrupt as most other things that involve lots of money. If someone is popular and you know who they are, they are victims, not victors. This is the Mickey Mouse version. The Truth has yet to be told.
Record producers and record executives create boxing promoters look like priests in comparison. What these thieves did to the recording artists was not good and it's unreal that all of them were not locked up. A terrific book for any young musician or recording artist--a must-read before signing on the dotted line with anyone in the melody business.
Read this book for the history of recorded melody from post WW2 to the 21st e Internet and technology has changed the melody industry drastically since is book does nothing to address the fresh melody dynamics where independent artists do not need the huge corporations to be heard. MySpace, YouTube and Facebook, along with other web based websites have changed to process forever. Not to mention how the iPod and downloading have altered the melody business' eat read though, full of amazing greed. Enjoy!
As a latest college grad newly employed in the U.S. Power-gen industry, I'd spent the first year of my career reaching for context as to 'why' and 'how' the industry had evolved to its current state. This book provided an enjoyable narrative that took me from the industry's inception to show day, highlighting necessary organizations and players along the r anyone interested in or employed in the power-gen industry (especially millennials and younger) this book provides a amazing starting point by laying out the timeline of the industry and its pivotal players and happenings - setting a base for further exploration and learning.Highly recommended, it was as exciting to me as Daniel Yergin's 'The Prize'.
This book is a must-read for baseball fans and anyone interested in the business of sports. In The Game, Jon Pessah offers a riveting acc of the modern baseball era under the reigns of Bud Selig, Donald Fehr and George Steinbrenner. Based on 5 years of research and interviews with more than 150 individuals including players, executives, former members of Congress, and even Bud Selig himself, Pessah recreates a behind-the-scenes view of the meetings, strategies, decisions, and subplots that shaped the android game – and the business of baseball – as we know e book is gripping from the opening stage and reads more like a novel – or even a film script – than a typical non-fiction book. It is a formidable 630 pages which reflects the wonderful depth of the research, but there isn’t a dull moment. The book is actually difficult to place down once you start. The author puts the reader in the minds of the real-life characters behind the sport – it makes you feel like you are witnessing history e Android game chronicles all of the major happenings in the sport from 1992 through 2010. But in addition to the story we are familiar with from the sports pages at the time, this book gives us a detailed view of what actually happened behind the scenes. The book covers all of the major business aspects affecting the sport including multiple labor negotiations, TV deals, and tax-payer funded stadiums. It covers the power struggles between the owners and players, and among the owners themselves. It describes the complicated relationship between politics and baseball. And it describes in detail the use of steroids in baseball and the perspectives of each stakeholder who tried to address the problem or decided to look the other way. But what is masterful is the method that the book covers these problems by giving us a seat at the table for every major negotiation, owners’ meeting, press conference, or confidential tactic session – and giving us a view of what each party was thinking at the addition to covering the off-the-field happenings that have shaped the sport, the book also reminds us why we are fans of baseball and gives us a box seat at the stadium to soak in some of baseball’s most memorable on-the-field moments during this period. Cal Ripken breaking Lou Gehrig’s consecutive android game record. McGuire breaking Maris’ single-season home run record. The Yankees dynasty and Globe Series three-peat. And hundreds of other memorable games, milestones and accomplishments. Through wonderfully vivid descriptions, the book captures the nostalgia of these moments, reminding you where you were and who you were with when you witnessed these events.And by juxtaposing the elation of these historic baseball moments with the business dealings going on in the background, the book gives us an entirely fresh view of the modern era of baseball – and sports in general.
My first memories of going to a baseball android game is about the time of the strike. I went to Candlestick park a few weeks before the season was shut down, and I observed from afar ten years later as the MLB was marred with a steroids controversy. This was an excellent, well researched acc behind the scenes of the powers that be in the game. It's impressive to think of all the research Mr. Pessah place in to report on all the info of conversations, testimonies, panel investigations and weave it in a method that makes the reading compelling and tough to place down. This book is not just for baseball fans, but anyone interested in huge business and how it uses its mighty hands of influence and cash to hint the balance to create them even more money. Baseball is a reflection on our modern society where inequality affects the game, except as Mr. Pessah shows that within the confines of the MLB there is zone for the union to place pressure on the owners, and eventually the owners decided that a shared revenue plan is amazing for the greater game. During a time of enormous income disparity-- an inside-look into the most strong in baseball-- this book give us a better picture on how our society functioned over the past twenty years.
The Android game by Jon Pessah was a grand slam! The book takes you behind the scenes of the business of baseball from the early 90s to present. In particular, this is the story of the three basic movers in the android game during that period - Bud Selig, Don Fehr and George Steinbrenner. A fascinating read and page turner, this book is an perfect follow up to John Helyar's Lords of the Realm, which covered the story before that period, especially the advent of free agency and Marvin Miller's reign as union chief, and Bowie Kuhn's management of the game. A page turner for anyone interested in the power and politics that have moved the game, this is a amazing read!
Engaging. Informative. Speculative. Illuminating. Irritating. Thoughtful. Mistaken. These terms describe Merve Emre’s fresh book, The Personality Brokers (in the US) and What’s Your Type? (in Australia and Europe), published by Doubleday. Emre brilliantly used sources in multiple locations to help her historical rendering of the family environment and passions of the mother-daughter duo who are responsible for the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator® assessment. She managed to expose a host of attitudes, reflective of the time, and of the special hero of the individuals involved.Emre’s true goal, however, is to use the popularity of the MBTI® tool to expose problems in the use of psychological tools in organizations. She is right to point out that using personality based tools for selection and promotion is problematic and typically doesn’t end well for the individual or the organization. Noting that individuals are being improperly evaluated from a self-report tool is precisely why the professional associations around the globe have such high standards regarding the use of assessments. What all social scientists know is that any assessment has measurement error and to create hard and quick conclusions on a single data point isn’t amazing science or a amazing use of science-based tools.Certainly, the MBTI® tool, if not the most used, among the most used “personality” similar tools in the globe is a prime target for attack on two levels. Most importantly, the use of this tool (and others) tends to be far beyond the bounds of what the tool’s purpose is, how the tool was constructed, and how the tool should be deployed. A second problem is on the nature of the tool itself and whether it stands to matter how a lot of times people are told that personality tools should not be used for hiring and promotion decisions as a single data point, companies still do it. Their HR departments wish a fast fix and as with most fast fixes, it is a very not good band-aid to a very complex problem. Regrettably, training and educating others on the proper use of tools is never a one and done proposition. Publishers need to be relentless in providing guidance regarding the use of the tools they publish.Emre’s main purpose to call out the abuse of individuals through the use of psychological tools is a five-star theme. The evidence she pulls together to present the passion and obsession of the Briggs and Myers development of the assessment is also compelling. Emre has done a service to anyone interested in both the context and the detail similar to the development of a tool, and in this case, the MBTI. While much of this history I knew, Emre filled in some blank spots which are consistent with the family lore that has been shared.I agree with Emre’s supposition that “the labeling of live human beings emerged as one technique for annihilating individuality” (p. XVI). There isn’t much doubt that a lot of people experience their results as described. In fact, Jung wrote in a lot of of his letters that type was not to be used for this purpose; rather, the theory of type was to alert individuals to a method to begin a journey of understanding private paths to individual uniqueness. This distortion Emre noted isn’t the fault of the tool; rather, it is the issue of the user who either doesn’t understand the tool or have a clear understanding of the underlying theory. As I wrote in I’m Not Crazy, I’m Just Not You, individuals should never trade self-knowledge for private power and private uniqueness…..as the poet said, we should avoid “knowledge gained with a loss of power.” I think there is abundant anecdotal evidence that the MBTI has been used incorrectly and used far beyond its purposes and the parameters of its statistical limits. But this claim can be created of almost any self-report tool that corporations use for selection. This problem is very necessary and very a side note, I suggest any form of labeling—race, gender, any orientation label—has the potential to limit self-understanding and private growth. The claims that Emre makes apply to almost every system in the social sciences. Unlike these other systems, psychological type assumes that gaining clarity about your natural tendencies is just a starting point. The goal is to understand the whole system and your use of it. There is no doubt that lots of experts have Procrustean beds which they like to place people in; psychological type, the basis of the MBTI tool, proposes it is an expansive and complex system we can access and use to enrich life choices and individual growth.Emre’s discussion of the state of training on the MBTI® tool is appalling. I checked in with a few people who recently were trained in the tool and their acc was not too far off Emre’s descriptions of how the material was presented and the spirit that permeated certification. For those of us who know psychological type, have trained and been trained regarding the MBTI® decades ago, we can only lament that the rigor and principles of care that once guided such training has apparently been lost. For example, strictly speaking, the MBTI® assessment is not a personality assessment. It was designed to obtain at a framework Carl Jung proposed that affects our mindsets. Rather than personality, Jung was interested in how we use our mental processes for seeing and acting on things. He never thought of these as “fixed” traits and was interested in showing how processes affect attitudes and choices. This was never thought of as “fixed” and invariant; it is a fluid system that has a home base. Emre’s own historical acc of Myers initial reports shows that she understood Jung’s model and that it was full of sources of variation. But this is apparently no longer part of the training conversation. In addition, training used to have a rigorous approach to reviewing the statistical methods for estimating reliability and validity of assessment tools, especially as applied to the MBTI® assessment, which is also lost.Emre’s commitment to fair-mindedness does not extend to looking at all of the evidence about the science similar to the MBTI® tool, and by extension, all other tools measuring for psychological type. For example, rather than reporting that there are science-minded critics on all sides of the fence about the reliability and validity of the MBTI (and other tools), she declares “it is a well-known fact that the type indicator is not scientifically valid” (p.xv) This would come as a major surprise to the hundreds of graduate committees who approved the tool for use in dissertations or the multiple studies done to present how type preferences are demonstrated.And Emre falls prey to the same limited criticism that so a lot of do by relying on the 1985 manual of the MBTI rather than looking at the newest edition of the manual which describes an entirely fresh statistical way for re-creating the tool. In short, you would be hard pressed to search social scientists declaring that an item response ysis based on a random sampling of the US population is useless and discredited. Item response ysis is very complex and technical; suffice it to say that a lot of consider it among the most strong methods available for measurement of human behavior. Through the seemingly endless articles criticizing the MBTI® I have yet to see a critic take up the ysis that is the basis of the newest ver of the tool, the research for which was completed 20 years l psychological tools have issues and issues, which is why methods for looking at the reliability and validity of a tool effect in “estimations” rather than definitive declarations of what is or isn’t worthwhile. The evidence speaks for itself. And truthfully, we should expect more evidence and demand higher research standards for assessment tools in ychological type is a model attempting to obtain individuals to think about how their minds work. What are our tendencies for managing our energy? Our tendencies for an approach to information? Tactics for making decisions? Typical approaches to everyday life? These are worthwhile questions if we wish to learn more about managing stress and renewal, understanding differences in approaches, and being begin to multiple paths to obtain to right answers. That this nuanced, rich framework has been lost in the training and lost in the app of psychological type assessments is lamentable.On the whole, Emre’s book (whatever title is being applied) reveals issues and problems with the use of assessments and the pernicious effects of tools used inappropriately. She exposes that there is a amazing deal of cash in the assessment globe and it has vested interests. All those problems are necessary and call upon serious-minded social scientists and users of tools to be mindful. Erme deftly identifies threads of fascism and ism that run through the historical context. Unfortunately, she conflates app with intention, popularity with greed, and bias with evidence. For example, she confuses how the MBTI is used with what Myers and Briggs intended, or even current guidance in the Manual about the use of the e supposition that Katharine Briggs and Isabel Myers were the “first to perceive how hungry the masses were for simple, self-affirming answers to the issue of self-knowledge” (p.XVII)” implies an intention which is revisionist history. Looking back on how things emerged in the history of the use of the tool, it seems real to me that a lot of individuals were captivated by the patterns suggested by the MBTI® results. To suggest that Briggs and Myers planned to create the MBTI an engine of wealth betrays every letter or reported conversation they had about their interest in type. They believed that type could support solve a lot of private issues and they believed that type provided a constructive method to understand human differences. These intentions are a far cry from attempting to leverage the MBTI® as a source of are a few of her declarations which mar the impact of the work. Erme shows a picture of Katharine (mother) and Isabel (daughter at 5 years old) and declares “Katharine and Isabel look straight into the camera: Katharine with pride; Isabel with docility and incomprehension” (p.11) I covered the description and shared the picture with 10 women and 10 men in ages from 18-74. When I asked what they saw in the image, people used terms like focused, intention, warm, affectionate, pleasant, and a host of other terms. Not one person said that they saw pride and incomprehension, and certainly, that was not my reaction. There are a hundred various ways to describe that photo but to impose “incomprehension” on someone’s look is quite remarkable and suggests a bias about the person as an adult, which is later confirmed in the on a single critic (e.g. Stricker, p. 216ff) of any subject indicates a lack of thoroughness. At the same time that Stricker was launching his opinion of an early ver of the MBTI, ETS statistician David Saunders had completed an extra ysis which countered Stricker’s views. Yet, Saunders isn’t noted nor his youthful (like Stricker) and later wise (in his 60s) ysis of extra data provided by Organizational Renewal Associates which was the basis for what has become Step II. None of these are “hidden” facts or characters in the story but notably absent here. This history would argue versus the narrative of an poor tool, born of greed, and useless to society.Emre writes, “Beyond all the pseudoscientific talk of ‘indicators’ and ‘instruments’ was a easy but subtle truth: the questionnaire reflected whatever ver of yourself you wanted it to reflect, whether consciously or unconsciously” (p. 263). If you remove the word “pseudoscientific” you have a direct statement that is real of all self-report assessments of any ilk. Anytime a person is answering questions about how they believe they are, you are getting a picture of their own self-image as they believe it to be. In the hands of a skilled coach or therapist, that photo can be useful and a source of productive exploration. The use of the word “pseudoscientific” is intended to suggest something of no value and represents a judgement not based on evidence. When we say something is scientific or pseudoscience, we owe it to the reader and topic matter to explain what we mean. Were the rules of ysis violated? Were there no efforts to present substance? Was any effort created to collect data and provide propositions? The reader has a right to know that there were plenty of studies done using the MBTI® tool, some of which are clarifying and others confounding about the tool and the underlying model—-which is a truthful statement about the e ending of the book is interesting in quoting Mary McCauley, the late president of CAPT and the basic aid to Myers and the MBTI for 30 years. Mary is quoted as saying the goal is one of becoming “a more excellent type” echoing the words of Jung. This is rather astonishing given that I knew Mary McCauley from 1980 to her death. We had endless conversations on the potential elements of type development and what they meant. I heard her speak of data and patterns similar to type development and effective use of one’s type lens. Not one time did I ever hear her utter the idea of a “perfect type” and I do not recall a single line in all of Jung’s work that suggests anything like that (p.269). Jung’s notion of individuation is about embracing and growing your special personhood and saying “yes” to what you can become. He wrote,“Everything amazing is costly, and the development of personality is one of the most costly of all things. It is a matter of saying yea to oneself, of taking oneself as the most serious of tasks, of being conscious of everything one does, and keeping it constantly before one’s eyes in all it dubious aspects—truly a task that taxes us to the utmost.” (Jung, The Collected Works of C.G. Jung, Vol. 13, para. 24)This is a far cry from declaring people should ‘perfect’ their type or even their personality. Myers wrote that type development is being clear about your patterns and knowing when to stretch to use other mental resources. These are calls to be uniquely be fair, you should know that the basic source of my comments in this essay comes from a lot of years of involvement with psychological type. I was involved early in the development of the Association for Psychological Type and was among the initial specialists who were part of the development of qualifying training for users of the MBTI® from 1981 to 2008. I served on the MBTI Research Board and participated in the research of the newest ver of the MBTI® tool, along with a panel of extra Ph.D. psychologists and psychometric spets. I completed research on the MBTI using the data at the Center for Creative Leadership in which I yzed the MBTI types and 75 independent variables, most of which verified predicted type patterns. I have developed my own tool for measurement of psychological type (Pearman Personality Integrator) so I know the limitations and challenges of creating a valid and reliable tool. Further, I knew a number of the individuals profiled in the book, The Personality Brokers. I have been an eyewitness to the growth and development of personality tools, including the MBTI®, and have researched and written about these tools.
I am Ravenna Helson, retired now but a research psychologist at the UC Berkeley Institute for Personality Assessment and Research (IPAR) over the period covered by Merve Emre in this book.While her writing is engaging, Emre is interesting at the cost of accuracy. This begins with the title of her book, which suggests the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) was the first personality try and thus brought about the beginning of personality testing. This is far from wit: the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory has been widely used and thoroughly researched; it was a clinical diagnostic instrument developed in the 1930s. The California Psychological Inventory has scales assessing characteristics common across cultures; it was developed in the 1950s. Another respected trait inventory was the Personality Research Form developed in the 1960s. The first manual for the MBTI was published by Isabel Myers in l962. So personality as a topic for research had long been born by the time the MBTI e history of Myers-Briggs may have been called “strange” by Emre because it was that of a mother and daughter who were not psychologists. Their story, however, shows so much dedication and commitment that “strange” seems, at best, an unkind term. But Emre often describes people in negative terms. Don McKinnon, director of IPAR, had had a consultation with Jung that deeply impressed him, and on the back of that association he greatly helped Myers and Briggs in the process of developing their test. He had the MBTI administered to the creative samples studied at IPAR, as well as to the staff, so we could see how the try was working. But Emre doesn’t mention MacKinnon’s support and further quotes me as calling him “henpecked” and “stingy,” terms that I don’t just refute on their face personally but am sure no one who knew Don would associate with him.Emre does not mention that Harrison Gough, a long-term director of IPAR (described by her, ludicrously, as “a compulsive designer of pen and pencil questionnaires”) and Avril Thorne, a talented graduate student, wrote “Portraits of Type, An MBTI Research Compendium.” This work was described by the Journal of Personality and Individual Differences as “certainly the most thorough, meaningful and valuable discussion of the MBTI, and anyone thinking of using it would certainly be needed to be familiar with the work here presented (1999).” Furthermore, she describes the Mills Study of Women’s Adult Development, a seminal longitudinal study that I began, as “not finding out much.” Not true! It is one of the major longitudinal studies undertaken over a fifty-year period, and numerous studies credit it as re personally, Emre describes me as “not being known by IPAR staff members” and as being referred to as“the woman.” This statement utterly mystifies me, as I loved IPAR and greatly admired the staff. Over a very long relationship, including numerous social gatherings involving our respective families, I have no doubt the feeling was reciprocated. Equally objectionably, she says that MacKinnon gave me cash for maternity leave, which is again not true. What is the case is that he enabled me to keep my usual pay even though I had gone to Europe with my husband on his sabbatical. Instead of ‘giving me cash for maternity leave,’ he went out on a limb in an era less than sympathetic to family problems as they affected female academics, because he knew I wouldn’t disappoint him.Emre is a professor of English at Oxford, and she is ingenious at getting material that she can create relevant to her own direction. But her casual attitude toward the truth and her unkindness detract from the quality of her work.
This is a well-researched book that would have been stronger academically if it had emphasized where the MBTI is useful, how it can be used in a very constructive way. There is a long history of it being mis-used and that is beautiful well doented. Yet the conclusion might better be that despite the idiosyncrasies in its development, it is a useful tool for helping individuals understand why they have the tendencies they do, what they can do to develop other strengths, and how they can use the lens of MBTI to work more effectively with others.