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I'm going to give you the best tip you've ever had. Mandarin and English are so fundamentally various from each other that although you guys all know enough English to obtain by, when you write apps targeted to English speakers it often comes off a hilariously mangled wreck. What I would do if I were you -- or any Chinese developer is simply hire an English speaking native to look over your writing and convert it into something that won't create Americans spit out their Coca-cola every 5 words in
I did read this book twice! Despites it includes a heavy amount of information, but it is written in such a method that it can be easily followed even missing some of the details. Multiple readings, especially of the central chapters allows to grasp a lot of useful info and improve the overall understanding of this complex topic. More specifically, I found the memory-based perfective model as base of the intelligence, not only fascinating, but also the best idea on the subject.
There's really nothing fresh in Hawkin's book- but this is still a very useful (not to mention fascinating) volume. The primary notion of mind as associative memory, in which learning, perception and cognition are all part of the same process, can be certainly be traced back to Pribram, if not earlier, and perhaps even Hebb (whom Hawkins cites). And the notion of a generalized system of perception without modlaity specific mechanisms is certainly as old.What Hawkins does is bring together a lot of info from locations that haven't talked to each other much, as well as theory and experiments that has been neglected by modern AI and cognitive theorists. His advantage is that he comes into the debate on mind and brain without, as they say, a dog in this fight. Unlike so a lot of AI researchers, cognitive theorists and philosophers, he's not wedded to a paradigm that he's based an acdemic career on. He's obviously read not only the psychology, neurobiology and AI literature, but also the early work of people like Weiner, Lettvin, McCullough, Pitts, and others who came at the issue from an enginnering background, and saw the generalizability of neuonal networks where physiologists might have been inclned to see organs and specialization.I can't say I agree one hundred percent with everything Hawkins proposes, and I think he is perhaps a bit too dismissive of the philisophical issues. But if you're interested in any of the fields I've mentioned, I think you'll search this to be an perfect read.
The book is about Hawkins' theory of how the mammalian cortex, especially the human cortex, works. Hawkins thinks it is only by understanding the cortex that we will be able to build truly smart machines. Blakeslee has aided him in presenting this theory so that it is accessible by the general public. I am very impressed by the theory of the cortex, but I do not agree that the cortex is the only method to achieve intelligence.Hawkins defines intelligence as the ability to create predictions. I think this is an perfect definition of intelligence.He says the cortex makes predictions via memory. The rat in the maze has a memory which contains both the motor activity of turning right and the experience of food. This activates turning right again, which is equivalent to the prediction that if he turns right, meal will e primate visual system, which is the sense best understood, has four cortical locations that are in a hierarchy. In the lowest area, at the back of the head, cells answer to edges in particular locations, sometimes to edges moving in specific directions. In the highest zone you can search cells that answer to faces, sometimes particular faces, such as the face of Bill Clinton.But the microscopic appearance of the cortex is basically the same everywhere. There is not even much difference between motor cortex and sensory cortex. The book makes sense of the connections found in all locations of the e cortex is a sheet covering the brain composed of little adjacent columns of cells, each with six layers. Info from a lower cortical zone excites the layer 4 of a column. Layer 4 cells excite cells in layers 2 and 3 of the same column, which in turn excite cells in layers 5 and 6. Layers 2 and 3 have connections to the higher cortical area. Layer 5 has motor connections (the visual zone affects eye movements) and layer 6 connects to the lower cortical area. Layer 6 goes to the long fibers in layer 1 of the zone below, which can excite layers 2 and or 3 in a lot of there are two ways of exciting a column. Either by the zone below stimulating layer 4, or by the zone above stimulating layers 2 and 3. The synapses from the zone above are far from the cell bodies of the neurons, but Hawkins suggests that synapses far from the cell body may fire a cell if several synapses are activated e lowest area, at the back of the head, is not actually the beginning of processing. It receives input from the thalamus, in the middle of the brain (which receives input from the eyes). Cells in the thalamus answer to little circle of light, and the first scene of processing is to convert this response to spots to response to moving edges.And the highest visual zone is not the end of the story. It connects to multisensory locations of the cortex, where vision is combined with hearing and touch, e very highest zone is not cortex at all, but the rception always involves prediction. When we look at a face, our fixation point is constantly shifting, and we predict what the effect of the next fixation will cording to Hawkins, when an zone of the cortex knows what it is perceiving, it sends to the zone below info on the name of the sequence, and where we are in the sequence. If the next item in the sequence agrees with what the higher zone thought it should be, the lower zone sends no info back up. But if something unexpected occurs, it transmits info up. If the higher zone can interpret the event, it revises its output to the lower area, and sends nothing to the zone above it.But truly unexpected happenings will percolate all the method up to the hippocampus. It is the hippocampus that processes the truly novel, eventually storing the once novel sequence in the cortex. If the hippocampus on both sides is destroyed, the person may still be intelligent, but can learn nothing fresh (at least, no fresh declarative memory).When building an artificial auto-associative memory, which can learn sequences, it is important to build in a delay so that the next item will be predicted when it will occur. Hawkins suggests that the important delay is embodied in the feedback loop between layer 5 and the nonspecific locations of the thalamus. A cell in a nonspecific thalamic zone may stimulate a lot of cortical cells.I think this theory of how the cortex works makes a lot of sense, and I am grateful to Hawkins and Blakeslee for writing it in a book that is accessible to people with limited AI and neuroscience.But I am not convinced that the mammalian cortex is the only method to achieve intelligence. Hawkins suggests that the rat walks and sniffs with its "reptilian brain", but needs the cortex to learn the correct turn in the maze. But alligators can learn mazes using only their reptilian brains. I would have been quite surprised if they could not.Even bees can predict, using a brain of one cubic millimeter. Not only can they learn to locate a bowl of sugar water, if you move the bowl a small further away each day, the bee will go to the correct predicted zone rather than to the latest experienced location.And large-brained birds achieve primate levels of intelligence without a cortex. The part of the forebrain that is enlarged in highly smart birds has a nuclear rather than a laminar (layered) structure. The parrot Alex had language and intelligence equivalent to a two year old human, and Aesop's fable of the crow that figured out to obtain what he wanted from the surface of the water by dropping stones in the water and raising the water level, has been replicated in crows presented with the problem.
I read this book when it was first published (in 2004) and recently re-read it while preparing for an interview of one of countless thought leaders who have acknowledged their amazing debt to Jeff Hawkins for what they have learned from him and, especially, for what they learned from this book. Written with Sandra Blakeslee, this book provides a superb discussion of subjects that includeo Artificial intelligenceo Neural networkso The structure and functions of the human braino A "new framework of intelligence" (more about that later)o How the cortex workso Consciousness and creativityo Hawkins' thoughts about the future of intelligenceAs Hawkins explains, his goal "is to explain [his] fresh theory of intelligence and how the brain works in a method that anybody will understand." However, I hasten to add, this is not a book written for dummies and idiots who want to "fool" people into thinking they know and understand more than in fact they do.Early on, Hawkins acknowledges his skepticism about artificial intelligence (AI) for reasons that are best explained within his narrative, in context. However, it can be said now that after extensive research, Hawkins concluded that three separate but similar components are essential to understanding the brain: "My first criterion was the inclusion of time in brain function...The second criterion was the inclusion of feedback...The third criterion was that any theory or model of the brain should acc for the physical architecture of the brain." AI capabilities, Hawkins notes, are severely limited in terms of (a) creating programs that replicate what the human mind can do, (b) must be excellent to work at all, and (c) AI "might lead to useful products, but it isn't going to build truly intelligence machines." At least not until we gain a much better understanding of the human e material in Chapter 7, "Consciousness and Creativity," is of unique interest to me as I continue to read recently published books that breakthrough insights on creativity, innovation, and the processes by which to develop them. (The authors of a lot of of those books, to borrow from a 12th century French monk, Bernard of Chartres, are standing on Dawkins' "shoulders." It must be getting crowded up there.) Hawkins asserts that creativity does not require high intelligence and giftedness, and defines creativity as "making predictions by analogy, something that occurs everywhere in cortex and something you do continually while awake. Creativity occurs along a continuum...At a fundamental level, daily acts of perception are related to rare flights of brilliance. It's just that the daily acts are so common we don't message them." I call this phenomenon "the invisibility of the obvious."I am among those who are curious to know the answers to questions such as "Why are some people more creative than others?" "Can you train yourself to be more creative?" "What is consciousness?" and "What is imagination?" Hawkins has formulated answers to these and other questions and shares them in this chapter. Much of the structure of the "new framework of intelligence" to which I referred earlier is in put by the conclusion of this chapter. Then Hawkins concludes the book by looking to the future and with eleven predictions. Here's #8: "Sudden understanding should effect in a precise cascading of predictive activity that flows down the cortical hierarchy." In other words, revelations (whatever their nature and scope) support us, not only to connect dots but to connect those that are most important.
This book was a amazing read, very accessible and might prove to be a very necessary book one day. It's concise and to the point and if you have any interest whatsoever in AI you simply can not miss this it. It's a fast read that will without a doubt have a significant impact on how you view the future of artificial a testament to it's relevancy today (I'm writing this Sept 2012, seven years after the book was published) he predicts three technological applications that may become available in the short term (5-10 years) due to breakthroughs in the kind of trainable AI this book discusses:Computer vision and teaching a computer to tell the difference between a cat and a dog (this was successfully demonstrated in a study published in June 2012 - the paper is called "Building High-level Features Using Huge Scale Unsupervised Learning" and is available online, or just find for "computer learns to recognize cats" for articles)PDAs (as they were called back then) will understand naturally spoken instructions like "Move my daughter's basketball android game on Sunday to 10 in the morning" (this kind of sentence, copied from the book verbatim, is exactly where Apple's AI app SIRI shines)Smart/autonomous vehicles - in Aug 2012, Google announced that their self driving vehicles have logged 300 K accident miles in live traffic on public roads, exceeding the average distance a human drives without e thing to note here is that when he wrote the book these three things had hurdles that we did not know how to solve, and at the time there was no clear linear progression of existing solutions that would guarantee they would be solved. His prediction is that we'll be able to train computers to recognize patterns by themselves which will let us to eventually solve the issues (and this is exactly how the computer learned to recognize cat faces from youtube videos)Furthermore, he predicts that AI will become one of the hottest fields within the next 10 years - and with the current explosion of interest in Huge Data, Machine Learning, and applications like SIRI it is hard to deny that it lookslike we're right in the midst of seeing just this e grander implications of the model of this book won't be known for another 10-20 years or more, but 7 years in his general predictions about the field of AI have been very accurate.
First the "facts":Jeff Hawkings is not a scientist as a lot of reviewers accurately point out. While he reviews some of the cutting edge approaches to artificial intelligence, his goal is definitely not to educate readers on these ideas, merely to give you an idea of the general mindset of these schools of stark contrast to the "modern science", Hawkings spends most of the book discussing a novel and more holistic idea about the primary function of the brain and how this kind of perspective would influence the creation of Artificial Intelligence. The story is easy and compelling, a very stimulating and satisfying idea. While Hawkings does dive down into some very technical science as grounding points for his approach, he spends most of the book talking suggesting very accessible human behaviors and how they would be explained in his this regard, the book is interesting and accessible to most readers. Advanced readers will search his more technical sections insightful and interesting, but not to the detriment of the casual the editorial:To place it mildly, there's a reason why the greatest scientific minds seem to explode out of nowhere. The scientific establishment has a method of deciding that a certain thing is real and then using its systematic bureaucratic power to "box out" alternative ideas. This stifles dozens and forces the most brilliant people (with right answers) to search unconventional channels for their ter identifying the mainstream philosophies, Hawkins a paradigm shift in the approach to "intelligence". Instead of getting bogged down in the micro-advances of "modern science", he says, "What if the mind worked this other way?" He then carries this theme through diverse schools of thought, identifying both powerful links to human behavior and existing science. While the info of his concept may not be quite right, the general concept has a simplicity and elegance both in the science and in how it can be seen in human nature. Even more awesome is the method that his easy premise explains so a lot of things outside his "domain", a compelling try for fresh my somewhat limited exposure to the subject, I suspect that the primary idea is so strong that it (or something like it) will shatter the modern study of intelligence. At the same time, it is such a paradigm shift that the mainstream will no doubt ignore it for quite a that respect, this book a compelling and promising idea that is both accessible to an average reader and worth consideration by an expert in the field. This is a MUST READ for curious minds.
If, like me, you're a developer with an interest in real artificial intelligence, this is a very stimulating book. Hawkins applies his own engineer's mind to an effort to discern and describe the human brain's underlying "cortical algorithm", the means by which intelligence "works". As Hawkins sees it, the neuroscience community has been too focused on the minutae of how neurons function, without giving adequate consideration to the brain's overall learning and decision-making architecture, while the computer science community has been too absorbed in traditional symbolic and procedural computation methods, ignoring insights that might be gleaned from studying the most strong problem-solving system in nature. Of course, it's untrue that neuroscientists and comp-sci academics aren't interested in each other's disciplines, but the crossover is still a long method from mainstream. For coders working in industry (like me), Hawkin's thoughts may be e author focuses most of his attention on the cortex, the most recently evolved part of the human brain, and the one responsible for a lot of functions of higher intelligence. His speculation is that this system uses the same generalized learning/prediction algorithm throughout, with small difference in how input from vision, hearing, touch, and other senses are processed. All this data is just sequences of patterns that the cortex filters through its multilayered hierarchy, each layer discerning trends in the input from lower layers, and forming models of the is may sound like the traditional AI concept of "neural networks", but Hawkins breaks from that model with his view that the cortex uses heavy amounts of feedback from higher, more time-invariant layers (which view the globe more abstractly) to lower, more time-variant layers (which with more concrete experience), activating a lot of context switches. He sees the cortex as a blank slate upon birth, which follows relatively easy programming to accumulate and categorizes knowledge. As our minds form, we search ourselves experiencing the globe less through our sensory input, and more through our pre-formed models. Only when there is conflict between those models and our input sequences, is our conscious attention drawn to our terms of biological neuroscience, this is all probably overly simplistic and not completely accurate (Hawkins doesn't give a lot of attention to the older, more instinctive parts of the brain), but if he's even partly right, his ideas have large implications for artificial intelligence. If much our human intelligence really does boil down to a generalized memory-prediction algorithm -- one that may be complex, but not beyond our understanding -- the effects on the future will be astounding. Even if Hawkins wasn't able to prove his claims, they're fascinating to contemplate, and the next few decades will certainly shed a lot of light on their truth.If this book speaks to you, consider also reading Marvin Minsky's A Society of Minds, which includes a lot of complementary ideas.
Surprised to obtain a book that looks like it has been printed on an ancient ribbon printer and photocopied while out of ink, with half the pages barely legible. The content itself is in a amazing part the author’s opinions, which while reasonable are not scientific discoveries. It would have been better for the author to show a summary of the knowledge in this zone instead of claiming private credit.
Oxymoron to 90% of the military, but for us 10% it was a serious job at hand. I have read most of this in books in class when going through classes in the Troops back in the 60's. Being I primarily worked Signal Intelligence, G2, I held the responsibility of teaching the Soviet Threat.
In this very well written book, Hawkins and Blakeslee describe a fresh model of how our human intelligence has evolved, how it "works" and what it means to have a “massive” cerebral cortex. Much of the description of the brain's neuronal structure will be familiar to those who follow developments in neuroscience. However, what's fresh here is a working model of how the brain uses extensive feedback loops to complete the complex task of info e authors assert that, "The brain uses the same process to see as to hear. The cortex does something universal that can be applied to any type of sensory or motor system." And, "The idea that patterns from various senses are equivalent inside your brain is quite surprising, and although well understood, it still isn’t widely appreciated." Further, the method the brain processes info is consistently applied to all that sensory data. This common processing algorithm and sensory input processing helps our brains to adapt to an ever changing environment. That is why we can live and function in this modern world. A globe in which change, and our need to adapt, has certainly outstripped evolutionary time e hypothesis place forward in this book rings real to me based on my understanding of complex systems and from observing the actions of my fellow human beings. This model (new to me but not necessarily fresh to the neuroscience world) doesn't negate my understanding from other reading how the human brain is "wired." Rather, it explains more fully how the system "hangs together" and accomplishes the wonderful feats we witness every day. It also lays the foundation for a better understanding of human consciousness.Once again the fact that we can understand our material globe only in a "second hand" manner is driven home by this model. We work only with a representation of the world, and it is represented by a limited number of sensory inputs. From the standpoint of how we with our fellow human beings, this challenging and interesting book makes it clear that we should all be a lot lesscertain that what we "know to be true" is actually a real representation of the authors' words: "Finally, the idea that patterns are the fundamental currency of intelligence leads to some interesting philosophical questions. When I sit in a room with my friends, how do I know they are there or even if they are real? My brain receives a set of patterns that are consistent with patterns I have experienced in the past. These patterns correspond to people I know, their faces, their voices, how they usually behave, and all kinds of facts about them. I have learned to expect these patterns to occur together in predictable ways. But when you come down to it, it’s all just a model. All our knowledge of the globe is a model based on patterns. Are we certain the globe is real? It’s fun and odd to think about. Several science-fiction books and films discover this theme. This is not to say that the people or objects aren’t really there. They are really there. But our certainty of the world’s existence is based on the consistency of patterns and how we interpret them. There is no such thing as direct perception. We don’t have a “people” sensor. Remember, the brain is in a dark quiet box with no knowledge of anything other than the time-flowing patterns on its input fibers. . . Your perception of the globe is made from these patterns, nothing else. Existence may be objective, but the spatial-temporal patterns flowing into the axon bundles in our brains are all we have to go on."What does all this mean to our everyday lives? To me it simply means that there are solid reasons to create sure we always question our assumptions, work to search as much objective empirical data as possible and let for other people to have a various view of the patterns they discern. Our individual perspective is all we have, but it isn't necessarily the only one nor is it necessarily the most accurate representation.
First, allow me comment on the writing. There is an obvious attempt to create things as clear as possible to the layman, with almost too a lot of illustrations of some of the points, and only as much technical language as is necessary. Some of the imagery is great. Never-the-less, getting through the long chapter on "How the Cortex Works" is a chore. At the same time, the Appendix, whose basic purpose is to lay out a research program, is clear, concise, and very informative; in other words, the appendix should have been incorporated into the chapter, and some of the chapter info left for an Appendix. It doesn't support that while hierarchy is emphasized, within the core unit of the cortex, the 6 layered "column", the flow of info is not primarily upward or downward. A key observation is that tasks which are complex or impossible to solve by computer, such as determining if a cat is pictured in a photograph, can be accomplished by the brain in less than 100 steps (we know this from the time it takes neurons to fire). Another is that inside the brain it is dark and silent: the cortex is always simply processing spatial/temporal patterns of impulses, whether these originated: outside of the cortex, as sounds, images, etc.; feedback from the body's own activity such as moving or lifting an object; thoughts generated within the cortex. All regions of the cortex look much the same, as best we can tell - they do functionally various things, but Hawkins infers they use the same primary algorithm(s) everywhere. Another observation is that info must be stored in invariant form, so that an a face can be recognized despite the lighting, angle, and so on, which all drastically affect the actual "pixels" which are recorded on the retina. Hawkins sees the cortex as an auto-associative memory, which stores patterns in an invariant, hierarchical form, and can recall a complete pattern from part of the pattern, and even if the inputs are somewhat distorted (which is why we never message blind spots in the retina). The cortex is constantly using this capability to predict what pattern it will see next, and to compare it to actual patterns: if the prediction is incorrect, then this info is moved up the hierarchy and learning may occur as fresh and often more general kinds of classifications (invariant representations) are created dynamically. Patterns can correspond to concepts as well as the output of the physical senses. In fact, my appreciation of Hawkins' book was greatly enhanced by having previously read Jerome Feldman's " From Molecule to Metaphor", which seems to take a very various approach to the brain in explaining how the kid masters language (and is very various as to the actual mechanics, suggesting the use of what Hawkins calls backward propagation neural networks rather than auto-associative networks, the latter making more sense to me). What Feldman makes clear is how we bootstrap learning using analogy (comparable to invariant patterns), so that abstract concepts can be seen as originally built from analogy to models of physical movement and grasping and then obtain increasingly abstract. Interestingly, just as Feldman starts with concepts of motor control as the basis of language, Hawkins points out a predicted pattern can also correspond to a series of instructions for muscular movement. Hawkins defines creativity as "prediction by analogy" (p.183). One interesting prediction that Hawkins makes is that neurons will be found to be smarter than mere aggregators which fire only if the sum of positive minus negative inputs exceed some threshold; instead, he thinks at least some neurons also have the capability to fire if certain inputs fire together without respect to an aggregate threshold. He also speculates on why sounds seem various than images, acknowledging that this may have to do with the non-cortical locations of the brain, just as these locations are so necessary to emotions.
The Reason I rated it 3 stars is because they avoided and failed to take into consideration the Gender discrimination using male domination with a picture of a female hero with a sexiest sentence stating; touching his chin crossing his hands etc...the reader can be a female, it is only fair that the writer or Application creator to avoid "The gender discrimination" or use sexiest words. Other than that it is amazing info amazing application for someone that ain't lazy and loves to read and for those who are the opposite theirs YouTube with amazing videos about this.
Perfect explanations and value of possessing Emotional Intelligence, and much overlooked part of human relations. Very helpful for anyone involved in and marketing. Everyone should read this whether they are involved in or not, just for the sheer knowledge it imparts. The globe could be vastly improved if everyone knew and understood this small know aspect of relationships.
Just a stupid video application with three videos of a guy drawing on a whiteboard while explaining what artificial intelligence is. Not even worth the free, just obtain yourube or whatever and watch vids on AI there. James Stevens seems fake to me btw (the only other review of this application rn, which has 2 downloads as of me)
This book is a must read for anyone wishing to understand how the human brain can organize heavy amounts of data despite having finite capacity and capability. Originally written for intel analysts at CIA, the principles found in this book are applicable to the conduct of all types of analysis. Buyer beware, this book is also published on CIA's website, and can be printed as a word document.
It appeared that the printing had been done at the wrong angle, which resulted in some of the text being chop off. This was a beautiful minor problem though, and I've only come across it in a couple locations throughout my reading. Overall, it is still worth the purchase.
This 1994 release represents a style of electronic melody that is all too rare today, in 1999: an amalgam of techno and trance that is at once original, creative, and melodic. Today, the gulf between trance and techno has widened, as the latter has become increasingly obscure, reptitive, and "different for its own sake," while the former has veered toward a style of "eurotrance" that is too often cheesy, rather than artistic. But this cd incorporates tracks released on the Warp label that still can be listened to again and again without their becoming stale or tiresome. It's terrific stuff.
Dear AI fans, I just wish to tell you that there's a mistake in my review below. The song taken from B12's album is called "Scriptures", not "Link". Here's the complete track list:1. Tag Franklin-"Release to the system", 2. Higher Intelligence Agency-"Selinite", 3. Link-"Arcadian", 4. B12-"Scriptures", 5. Autechre-"Chatter", 6. Speedy J-"Symmetry", 7. Beaumont Hannant-"Utuba", 8. Richard H. Kirk-"Reality net", 9. Balil-"Parasight", 10. Seefeel-"Spangle". Also available now: My review of "Artificial Intelligence I".
really frustrated...my m5 connects to the max trainer application via bluetooth with no problems but this application is having bluetooth problems... works really love for them to fix this problem and answer with an respond so everyone to see..not some generic notice saying to email them or give them a call..
Be prepared to be frustrated with this app. I have spent hours on trying to obtain this application to work with my newly purchased M6 and it still doesn't work. I've sent emails to Bowflex, live chat with Bowflex and I even called their customer service and I'm still not able to use this app. I won't waste any more of your time explaining all the things that I've tried but if you're buying the machine with hopes of pairing this application to it you may wish to consider buying from another company.
Frustrating!!!! it worked once and now every single time i workout it will loose connection at the end of my workout and the worst part is it looses all my workout progress when it looses connection. ive only had it a week and only one successful workout on the application which is not good considering im working out 30 minute or more a day and after having it happen back to back then i decide to use the machine without the application and the application will recognize my workout but not give me for any of my goal