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I read this book when it was first published (in 2004) and recently re-read it while preparing for an interview of one of countless thought leaders who have acknowledged their amazing debt to Jeff Hawkins for what they have learned from him and, especially, for what they learned from this book. Written with Sandra Blakeslee, this book provides a superb discussion of subjects that includeo Artificial intelligenceo Neural networkso The structure and functions of the human braino A "new framework of intelligence" (more about that later)o How the cortex workso Consciousness and creativityo Hawkins' thoughts about the future of intelligenceAs Hawkins explains, his goal "is to explain [his] fresh theory of intelligence and how the brain works in a method that anybody will understand." However, I hasten to add, this is not a book written for dummies and idiots who want to "fool" people into thinking they know and understand more than in fact they do.Early on, Hawkins acknowledges his skepticism about artificial intelligence (AI) for reasons that are best explained within his narrative, in context. However, it can be said now that after extensive research, Hawkins concluded that three separate but similar components are essential to understanding the brain: "My first criterion was the inclusion of time in brain function...The second criterion was the inclusion of feedback...The third criterion was that any theory or model of the brain should acc for the physical architecture of the brain." AI capabilities, Hawkins notes, are severely limited in terms of (a) creating programs that replicate what the human mind can do, (b) must be excellent to work at all, and (c) AI "might lead to useful products, but it isn't going to build truly intelligence machines." At least not until we gain a much better understanding of the human e material in Chapter 7, "Consciousness and Creativity," is of unique interest to me as I continue to read recently published books that breakthrough insights on creativity, innovation, and the processes by which to develop them. (The authors of a lot of of those books, to borrow from a 12th century French monk, Bernard of Chartres, are standing on Dawkins' "shoulders." It must be getting crowded up there.) Hawkins asserts that creativity does not require high intelligence and giftedness, and defines creativity as "making predictions by analogy, something that occurs everywhere in cortex and something you do continually while awake. Creativity occurs along a continuum...At a fundamental level, daily acts of perception are related to rare flights of brilliance. It's just that the daily acts are so common we don't message them." I call this phenomenon "the invisibility of the obvious."I am among those who are curious to know the answers to questions such as "Why are some people more creative than others?" "Can you train yourself to be more creative?" "What is consciousness?" and "What is imagination?" Hawkins has formulated answers to these and other questions and shares them in this chapter. Much of the structure of the "new framework of intelligence" to which I referred earlier is in put by the conclusion of this chapter. Then Hawkins concludes the book by looking to the future and with eleven predictions. Here's #8: "Sudden understanding should effect in a precise cascading of predictive activity that flows down the cortical hierarchy." In other words, revelations (whatever their nature and scope) support us, not only to connect dots but to connect those that are most important.
I did read this book twice! Despites it includes a heavy amount of information, but it is written in such a method that it can be easily followed even missing some of the details. Multiple readings, especially of the central chapters allows to grasp a lot of useful info and improve the overall understanding of this complex topic. More specifically, I found the memory-based perfective model as base of the intelligence, not only fascinating, but also the best idea on the subject.
There's really nothing fresh in Hawkin's book- but this is still a very useful (not to mention fascinating) volume. The primary notion of mind as associative memory, in which learning, perception and cognition are all part of the same process, can be certainly be traced back to Pribram, if not earlier, and perhaps even Hebb (whom Hawkins cites). And the notion of a generalized system of perception without modlaity specific mechanisms is certainly as old.What Hawkins does is bring together a lot of info from locations that haven't talked to each other much, as well as theory and experiments that has been neglected by modern AI and cognitive theorists. His advantage is that he comes into the debate on mind and brain without, as they say, a dog in this fight. Unlike so a lot of AI researchers, cognitive theorists and philosophers, he's not wedded to a paradigm that he's based an acdemic career on. He's obviously read not only the psychology, neurobiology and AI literature, but also the early work of people like Weiner, Lettvin, McCullough, Pitts, and others who came at the issue from an enginnering background, and saw the generalizability of neuonal networks where physiologists might have been inclned to see organs and specialization.I can't say I agree one hundred percent with everything Hawkins proposes, and I think he is perhaps a bit too dismissive of the philisophical issues. But if you're interested in any of the fields I've mentioned, I think you'll search this to be an perfect read.
This book was a amazing read, very accessible and might prove to be a very necessary book one day. It's concise and to the point and if you have any interest whatsoever in AI you simply can not miss this it. It's a fast read that will without a doubt have a significant impact on how you view the future of artificial a testament to it's relevancy today (I'm writing this Sept 2012, seven years after the book was published) he predicts three technological applications that may become available in the short term (5-10 years) due to breakthroughs in the kind of trainable AI this book discusses:Computer vision and teaching a computer to tell the difference between a cat and a dog (this was successfully demonstrated in a study published in June 2012 - the paper is called "Building High-level Features Using Huge Scale Unsupervised Learning" and is available online, or just find for "computer learns to recognize cats" for articles)PDAs (as they were called back then) will understand naturally spoken instructions like "Move my daughter's basketball android game on Sunday to 10 in the morning" (this kind of sentence, copied from the book verbatim, is exactly where Apple's AI app SIRI shines)Smart/autonomous vehicles - in Aug 2012, Google announced that their self driving vehicles have logged 300 K accident miles in live traffic on public roads, exceeding the average distance a human drives without e thing to note here is that when he wrote the book these three things had hurdles that we did not know how to solve, and at the time there was no clear linear progression of existing solutions that would guarantee they would be solved. His prediction is that we'll be able to train computers to recognize patterns by themselves which will let us to eventually solve the issues (and this is exactly how the computer learned to recognize cat faces from youtube videos)Furthermore, he predicts that AI will become one of the hottest fields within the next 10 years - and with the current explosion of interest in Huge Data, Machine Learning, and applications like SIRI it is hard to deny that it lookslike we're right in the midst of seeing just this e grander implications of the model of this book won't be known for another 10-20 years or more, but 7 years in his general predictions about the field of AI have been very accurate.
First the "facts":Jeff Hawkings is not a scientist as a lot of reviewers accurately point out. While he reviews some of the cutting edge approaches to artificial intelligence, his goal is definitely not to educate readers on these ideas, merely to give you an idea of the general mindset of these schools of stark contrast to the "modern science", Hawkings spends most of the book discussing a novel and more holistic idea about the primary function of the brain and how this kind of perspective would influence the creation of Artificial Intelligence. The story is easy and compelling, a very stimulating and satisfying idea. While Hawkings does dive down into some very technical science as grounding points for his approach, he spends most of the book talking suggesting very accessible human behaviors and how they would be explained in his this regard, the book is interesting and accessible to most readers. Advanced readers will search his more technical sections insightful and interesting, but not to the detriment of the casual the editorial:To place it mildly, there's a reason why the greatest scientific minds seem to explode out of nowhere. The scientific establishment has a method of deciding that a certain thing is real and then using its systematic bureaucratic power to "box out" alternative ideas. This stifles dozens and forces the most brilliant people (with right answers) to search unconventional channels for their ter identifying the mainstream philosophies, Hawkins a paradigm shift in the approach to "intelligence". Instead of getting bogged down in the micro-advances of "modern science", he says, "What if the mind worked this other way?" He then carries this theme through diverse schools of thought, identifying both powerful links to human behavior and existing science. While the info of his concept may not be quite right, the general concept has a simplicity and elegance both in the science and in how it can be seen in human nature. Even more awesome is the method that his easy premise explains so a lot of things outside his "domain", a compelling try for fresh my somewhat limited exposure to the subject, I suspect that the primary idea is so strong that it (or something like it) will shatter the modern study of intelligence. At the same time, it is such a paradigm shift that the mainstream will no doubt ignore it for quite a that respect, this book a compelling and promising idea that is both accessible to an average reader and worth consideration by an expert in the field. This is a MUST READ for curious minds.
If, like me, you're a developer with an interest in real artificial intelligence, this is a very stimulating book. Hawkins applies his own engineer's mind to an effort to discern and describe the human brain's underlying "cortical algorithm", the means by which intelligence "works". As Hawkins sees it, the neuroscience community has been too focused on the minutae of how neurons function, without giving adequate consideration to the brain's overall learning and decision-making architecture, while the computer science community has been too absorbed in traditional symbolic and procedural computation methods, ignoring insights that might be gleaned from studying the most strong problem-solving system in nature. Of course, it's untrue that neuroscientists and comp-sci academics aren't interested in each other's disciplines, but the crossover is still a long method from mainstream. For coders working in industry (like me), Hawkin's thoughts may be e author focuses most of his attention on the cortex, the most recently evolved part of the human brain, and the one responsible for a lot of functions of higher intelligence. His speculation is that this system uses the same generalized learning/prediction algorithm throughout, with small difference in how input from vision, hearing, touch, and other senses are processed. All this data is just sequences of patterns that the cortex filters through its multilayered hierarchy, each layer discerning trends in the input from lower layers, and forming models of the is may sound like the traditional AI concept of "neural networks", but Hawkins breaks from that model with his view that the cortex uses heavy amounts of feedback from higher, more time-invariant layers (which view the globe more abstractly) to lower, more time-variant layers (which with more concrete experience), activating a lot of context switches. He sees the cortex as a blank slate upon birth, which follows relatively easy programming to accumulate and categorizes knowledge. As our minds form, we search ourselves experiencing the globe less through our sensory input, and more through our pre-formed models. Only when there is conflict between those models and our input sequences, is our conscious attention drawn to our terms of biological neuroscience, this is all probably overly simplistic and not completely accurate (Hawkins doesn't give a lot of attention to the older, more instinctive parts of the brain), but if he's even partly right, his ideas have large implications for artificial intelligence. If much our human intelligence really does boil down to a generalized memory-prediction algorithm -- one that may be complex, but not beyond our understanding -- the effects on the future will be astounding. Even if Hawkins wasn't able to prove his claims, they're fascinating to contemplate, and the next few decades will certainly shed a lot of light on their truth.If this book speaks to you, consider also reading Marvin Minsky's A Society of Minds, which includes a lot of complementary ideas.
Surprised to obtain a book that looks like it has been printed on an ancient ribbon printer and photocopied while out of ink, with half the pages barely legible. The content itself is in a amazing part the author’s opinions, which while reasonable are not scientific discoveries. It would have been better for the author to show a summary of the knowledge in this zone instead of claiming private credit.
In this very well written book, Hawkins and Blakeslee describe a fresh model of how our human intelligence has evolved, how it "works" and what it means to have a “massive” cerebral cortex. Much of the description of the brain's neuronal structure will be familiar to those who follow developments in neuroscience. However, what's fresh here is a working model of how the brain uses extensive feedback loops to complete the complex task of info e authors assert that, "The brain uses the same process to see as to hear. The cortex does something universal that can be applied to any type of sensory or motor system." And, "The idea that patterns from various senses are equivalent inside your brain is quite surprising, and although well understood, it still isn’t widely appreciated." Further, the method the brain processes info is consistently applied to all that sensory data. This common processing algorithm and sensory input processing helps our brains to adapt to an ever changing environment. That is why we can live and function in this modern world. A globe in which change, and our need to adapt, has certainly outstripped evolutionary time e hypothesis place forward in this book rings real to me based on my understanding of complex systems and from observing the actions of my fellow human beings. This model (new to me but not necessarily fresh to the neuroscience world) doesn't negate my understanding from other reading how the human brain is "wired." Rather, it explains more fully how the system "hangs together" and accomplishes the wonderful feats we witness every day. It also lays the foundation for a better understanding of human consciousness.Once again the fact that we can understand our material globe only in a "second hand" manner is driven home by this model. We work only with a representation of the world, and it is represented by a limited number of sensory inputs. From the standpoint of how we with our fellow human beings, this challenging and interesting book makes it clear that we should all be a lot lesscertain that what we "know to be true" is actually a real representation of the authors' words: "Finally, the idea that patterns are the fundamental currency of intelligence leads to some interesting philosophical questions. When I sit in a room with my friends, how do I know they are there or even if they are real? My brain receives a set of patterns that are consistent with patterns I have experienced in the past. These patterns correspond to people I know, their faces, their voices, how they usually behave, and all kinds of facts about them. I have learned to expect these patterns to occur together in predictable ways. But when you come down to it, it’s all just a model. All our knowledge of the globe is a model based on patterns. Are we certain the globe is real? It’s fun and odd to think about. Several science-fiction books and films discover this theme. This is not to say that the people or objects aren’t really there. They are really there. But our certainty of the world’s existence is based on the consistency of patterns and how we interpret them. There is no such thing as direct perception. We don’t have a “people” sensor. Remember, the brain is in a dark quiet box with no knowledge of anything other than the time-flowing patterns on its input fibers. . . Your perception of the globe is made from these patterns, nothing else. Existence may be objective, but the spatial-temporal patterns flowing into the axon bundles in our brains are all we have to go on."What does all this mean to our everyday lives? To me it simply means that there are solid reasons to create sure we always question our assumptions, work to search as much objective empirical data as possible and let for other people to have a various view of the patterns they discern. Our individual perspective is all we have, but it isn't necessarily the only one nor is it necessarily the most accurate representation.
First, allow me comment on the writing. There is an obvious attempt to create things as clear as possible to the layman, with almost too a lot of illustrations of some of the points, and only as much technical language as is necessary. Some of the imagery is great. Never-the-less, getting through the long chapter on "How the Cortex Works" is a chore. At the same time, the Appendix, whose basic purpose is to lay out a research program, is clear, concise, and very informative; in other words, the appendix should have been incorporated into the chapter, and some of the chapter info left for an Appendix. It doesn't support that while hierarchy is emphasized, within the core unit of the cortex, the 6 layered "column", the flow of info is not primarily upward or downward. A key observation is that tasks which are complex or impossible to solve by computer, such as determining if a cat is pictured in a photograph, can be accomplished by the brain in less than 100 steps (we know this from the time it takes neurons to fire). Another is that inside the brain it is dark and silent: the cortex is always simply processing spatial/temporal patterns of impulses, whether these originated: outside of the cortex, as sounds, images, etc.; feedback from the body's own activity such as moving or lifting an object; thoughts generated within the cortex. All regions of the cortex look much the same, as best we can tell - they do functionally various things, but Hawkins infers they use the same primary algorithm(s) everywhere. Another observation is that info must be stored in invariant form, so that an a face can be recognized despite the lighting, angle, and so on, which all drastically affect the actual "pixels" which are recorded on the retina. Hawkins sees the cortex as an auto-associative memory, which stores patterns in an invariant, hierarchical form, and can recall a complete pattern from part of the pattern, and even if the inputs are somewhat distorted (which is why we never message blind spots in the retina). The cortex is constantly using this capability to predict what pattern it will see next, and to compare it to actual patterns: if the prediction is incorrect, then this info is moved up the hierarchy and learning may occur as fresh and often more general kinds of classifications (invariant representations) are created dynamically. Patterns can correspond to concepts as well as the output of the physical senses. In fact, my appreciation of Hawkins' book was greatly enhanced by having previously read Jerome Feldman's " From Molecule to Metaphor", which seems to take a very various approach to the brain in explaining how the kid masters language (and is very various as to the actual mechanics, suggesting the use of what Hawkins calls backward propagation neural networks rather than auto-associative networks, the latter making more sense to me). What Feldman makes clear is how we bootstrap learning using analogy (comparable to invariant patterns), so that abstract concepts can be seen as originally built from analogy to models of physical movement and grasping and then obtain increasingly abstract. Interestingly, just as Feldman starts with concepts of motor control as the basis of language, Hawkins points out a predicted pattern can also correspond to a series of instructions for muscular movement. Hawkins defines creativity as "prediction by analogy" (p.183). One interesting prediction that Hawkins makes is that neurons will be found to be smarter than mere aggregators which fire only if the sum of positive minus negative inputs exceed some threshold; instead, he thinks at least some neurons also have the capability to fire if certain inputs fire together without respect to an aggregate threshold. He also speculates on why sounds seem various than images, acknowledging that this may have to do with the non-cortical locations of the brain, just as these locations are so necessary to emotions.
I'm going to give you the best tip you've ever had. Mandarin and English are so fundamentally various from each other that although you guys all know enough English to obtain by, when you write apps targeted to English speakers it often comes off a hilariously mangled wreck. What I would do if I were you -- or any Chinese developer is simply hire an English speaking native to look over your writing and convert it into something that won't create Americans spit out their Coca-cola every 5 words in
This book clarifies the roles played by the intel element which is normally not widely kinown about in society at large.. It informs readers about the overall activities, an overview, not is most informative and educational. It gives the reader a proof that the state remains constantly preocupied with the people and country's safety and security. It is amazing for USA people to know how the govt strives to stay well informed in terms of its constituents wellbeing. The book is also quite entertaining as it informs about a should know matter for everyone in the is in result a rare luxury allowing us to learn about these inteli crafts.
I’m almost embarrassed to admit that I’ve just got around to reading this, but there you have it. I probably would have enjoyed it more if I had read it years ago (I remember most of the tales he uses as examples from the old “Ballantine Espionage/Intelligence Library” paperbacks I read as a teenager in the late ‘70s), but it was still a amazing read. Part as advertised by the title, a huge part advocacy for the Agency, part defensive, and part recruiting pitch, (all in the context of the early ‘60s) Dulles blended it all together quite well, with an enjoyable writing style that avoids intel jargon and tells the story in a method that can be absorbed by anybody. But is really is written through the monochromatic lens of bipolar tournament through which too a lot of international problems were viewed at the time, and some of the assertions in the latter half of the book are almost embarrassing in themselves, given knowledge of what has been brought out into the begin over the five decades since it was originally published. Yet I do think that a book like this is really required today, fully up-to-date, that presents intelligence tradecraft, challenges, the role of intelligence in government, and privacy challenges in the modern context all in a method that’s readable by the average Joe.
If you're reading this book to obtain a feel for one of our nation's most necessary spymasters, through his private accounts of happenings that shaped history, you'll be delightfully disappointed. Of course, you must read it. But you'll wade through the dryer, more textbook like passages to shake your head and chuckle at some of the examples. The Fresh York Times was exactly on point when it said "Brilliantly selective candor". Dulles very often leaves out the juiciest portions of his examples; happenings that are now written history other places, are artfully excised from his retelling. As a example of discretion, Dulles provides his attentive students with a master class. Plame and Shaffer, would have been better served by reading this before setting pen to paper.If you're reading this book to learn the very basics of the intelligence community and it's process it's okay. You can save your with some dedicated Wikipedia searching. Your info will be more current, as there have been huge changes in the intelligence community since Dulles's time. As a historical treatment of the community's structure, it holds some passing interest. There's a compelling argument to be created for any modern expert to understand the historical opinions that senior leaders held toward the structure and bureaucracy that they ree stars for being a work "out of time", but redeemed in part by the sheer fact it's basic source material about someone who's contributions to national defense were by definition secret - and the above mentioned beautifully crafted, course in evasiveness, discretion, and unique pleading.
Contrary to previous reviews, Allen does provide some amazing insights into the globe of intelligence collection and analysis. However, hold in mind that Allen was also a CIA Director. This means he's not tapping phones himself, any more than a mining executive swings a pick axe, and so he's not going to tell you how that is done. It's also correct that we no longer live in Allen Dulle's world. Allen died in 1969, a globe where the Soviets were at their most intimidating, Communism was a genuine global threat and the Cold Battle was a desperate war of economics, politics, covert and overt violence, intelligence and, of course, ideology. Please hold this in mind when you and read this e book has some interesting insights into what intelligence meant at the time. It was the laborious of the clandestine parts of a clandestine society. It was the of soviet satellite nations. It was also the defence versus clandestine is book doesn't disclose national secrets, but I was surprised by the level of insight that Dulles provides into the intelligence globe he led and managed at the time. Issues including the difficulties of soviet society, the methods of blackmail that soviets would use versus westerners, his opinion of the fundamentally untrustworthiness of the soviets (I got the impression they would not abide a gentleman's agreement), and a lot of stories illustrating how soviets attempted to penetrate western targets (like embassies) while also showing how a lot of soviets would defect and collaborate with the west.I also don't wish to give anything way, but his section on Homo Sovieticus was both very funny and chilling at the same stly, he talks about problems of secrecy in a nation like the US, where the US will publish reams of congressional hearings, budgets, data about military advances in trade journals, and so on. Meanwhile, virtually everything was classified secret in soviet society. Of course, he believes it should be more difficult for the Soviets to collect info about American politics, but he also seemed a bit resigned to this level of wide publication as being a feature of what it is to be those who imagine that the globe of intelligence involves somehow doing things that aren't common sense, this book will be disappointing. Allen Dulles talks about practical issues and practical observations about intelligence work at the time of writing.
Most of the material is interesting, but you need to be familiar with the history of the time period to fully understand some of it. (It was originally published in 1963, the height of the Cold War: Berlin Wall, Gary Powers/U2, Cuban Missile Crisis, etc.) I'm guessing the copyright had expired, and this Indian publisher released it a few years ago - apparently they retyped the whole book from scratch. At places, I had to stop and think about what they meant instead of what they said because of typos. I don't believe Alan Dulles or anyone of his ilk would have place up with the errors. Don't obtain me wrong. There were not a amazing a lot of but where they were, they interfered with the writing.
The book is timeless. We see evidence of Dulles ' wisdom in the distrust Americans have in their government and the refusal of a lot of to apply a rule of reason to their public comments.
This is a book that a serious student of the Cold War, Espionage, or the CIA needs to have on his or her shelve. This is a well written study of the basics of intelligence and a lot of the history of the business.Unfortunately, I am not a serious student of any of those subjects. I found a lot of the material to be dated, having been written during the period immediately after JFK's assentation, and before our involvement in Viet-Nam. The book would be a lot better if it had been updated, A amazing of the material is well out of date, there is method too much info about the USSR in the early '60's, before and just after Khrushchev was over thrown. The info about the PRC is also very very dated.If this book was updated, I would rate it 5 stars. Like I said, this is a amazing history book, and a very amazing insight into one of the strongest spy minds of the 20th Century. Dulles was one of the people that started the CIA and the OSS.
Dulles is a dull writer. He gives a factual history of intelligence services and operations going back to Sun-Zhu, which I found mildly interesting. Fundamentally, Dulles uses the book to give a vigorous defense to the CIA and secret intelligence operations in general as they existed in the 60s. Some of the ancedotes he uses are entertaining, but there is small that the modern reader will search fresh or insightful, and the writing style is anything but scintillating.If I had read the book before the Snowden affair, I would have given it two stars. However, the Snowden revelations and the controversy it stirred up painted a sharp contrast to Dulles's view of secret intelligence. Dulles reminds us of a simpler era, when the good, honest intentions of our national leaders was taken for granted. That, for me, merited one additional star.
A very thorough examination of the roots of intelligence, namely from the US perspective, and the CIA. The book contains happenings significant to the earliest days of the CIA and how the different functions of US intelligence serve the American people. Four stars because it often leads into intriguing topics, but stops short of where it was relevant. Amazing historical read by a patriarch of the trade.
Others have mentioned that the book is obsolete, as we are no longer in the First Cold War. One could view it as a historical document, except that the title attracts spy enthusiasts, rather than historians. Oh, and the author, being CIA, lies to his audience so, not only is the book obsolete, it’s a work of Psyops. For example:Dulles tells the reader that the communists were plotting to take over Guatemala, and the CIA prevented that takeover. In fact, the CIA overthrew the Guatemalan government to support the United Fruit company – a company with which Alan Dulles and his brother (Secretary of State John Foster Dulles) had powerful ties.Dulles talks about Communist plans to take over the Congo, and he declares that the CIA saved the day. In reality, the democratically-elected prime minister, Patrice Lumumba, worked toward independence from Belgium. A Belgian-supported mutiny broke out in the military. Lumumba tried to obtain support from the U.N. and the U.S. He got none. He then tried to obtain support from the Soviet Union. That’s when he was assassinated by the CIA.Dulles also talks about how the Communists were going to take over Iran. Nuh uh. Once again, the CIA overthrew a democratically-elected ruler, Mohammad Mosaddegh. Mosaddegh wasn’t a communist, but he did test to nationalize the country’s petroleum industry- a move that annoyed the British no end. At the behest of the British, the CIA overthrew Mosaddegh and installed the Shah.(Gosh! I remember when we used to eat that kind of outrageous propaganda up! Nostalgia!)Dulles tells very small of the craft of intelligence, but he does mention a few episodes of espionage and other scandals (e.g.; the Petrov Affair, the Profumo affair) which are interesting to research on the internet. Dulles says very small about them, and what he does say is self-serving.Other than that, it’s a simply poor book. I normally wouldn’t have finished it, but there I was on a fourteen-hour plane ride…
The Assault on Intelligence is not just another polemic about a truth President with a lack of intelligence as to info and cognitive skill. The reason is that it can be read in conjunction with his earlier book Playing on the Edge. Playing was written prior to this presidency and so includes analysis that can not be said to be shaded by the inadequacies of the show incumbent in the White House. These books should be read e discussions with President Bush regarding detentions, renditions and interrogations and the briefings to President Obama regarding covert programs in Playing on the Edge present presidents intent on learning the minutia of these actions. Though the author was not in office during the show administration it is clear from his background that he knows how Trump is perceived by the intelligence agencies and why. The classic example he refers to is the visit of the President to the CIA when he talked about how he caught the media in a lie regarding the size of his inaugural crowd. This to a group of people who stake their reputations on checking and rechecking facts which is detailed in Playing on the Edge.During the campaign the incumbent turned the intelligence briefers into political props and campaign tools and alleged that he could tell what they were thinking from body language which it is apparent from Playing would never eresting, in Assault it is created clear that the intelligence institutions took down Mike Flynn, not the Obama administration. From Playing, it is clear om the two books it is apparent that Michael Hayden contributes a cohesive understanding of the full picture of the hurt the show administration has done to the specialists in the intelligence community. These books create it clear that agree or not with what covert action has been carried out in the past the average intelligence analyst has reason to wonder whether there is a thinking rational being at the other end of his work product. As a politically liberal reader, these texts create it possible to understand the threat to true facts communicated to the incumbent President in what he might do with them. Marge Haskell Instructor, Political Science Berkeley Town College
He place facts into the book that impressed me as an young scientist. I first read this book while attending a management training course. The teacher recommended that I read the book as it would support me understand how the human brain functions and how it evolved to function in that way. Most people would not think about this book as a management book, but it really emphasies how the reptilian brain is over laid by the mammalian brain. The reptilian brain is where powerful emotions are generated that are controlled by the overlying mammalian brain. It really helps understand the emotional problems in our lives and our interactions with other people.
This should be on the must read list of anyone concerned with current impeachment process facing our provides a detailed acc and chronology of the actions taken by the President that led o his impeachment for Abuse of Power and Obstruction of Congress and rooted the committee’s findings in both statutory and constitutional may have differing opinions about the impeachment but this at least provides primary facts, which despite the high-decibels defense, such as it was, emitted by the Republican Party were never really deed there is more here than was available to anyone whose knowledge comes only from watching the hearings and/or a steady diet of sound bites from cable news and the Internet.
Another brilliant book by one of my favourite teachers and authors. Authentic Success is a must read for anyone who really wants to understand what real authentic success is and how to access it!! All you have to do is give yourself permission and Robert tutorials the way.
I really enjoyed this book it was a lot of info to take in and ponder however it touched on all the informationSoul groups and soul creationTime travel zone and various species in spaceReincarnationThe sourceCounsel of EldersJourney the soul takesHow every universe relates and interacts with everything’s else and much more
Author presents material in language used in legal/ professional journal abstracts with numerous cluttering redundancies. After attempting to decipher several paragraphs, with strings of multi-syllabic, specialized terms, one might ask, "What in the H did I just read?" Some interesting insights and studies are provided. As well as sources for extra research. Somewhat comforting for those who have lost close family members. For most, believe the numerous videos on these subjects are easier to digest.
General Hayden writes very well. There are a lot of informed people writing books about the state of the U.S.; but of those I've read none other is laid out in a chronology, vocabulary and style that will create sense to the general public. Hayden's "Assault on Intelligence" moves as only first class prose e warning he sounds isn't the first we've heard since Donald Trump took office; but maybe this one is so clear, so fact-based and so chillingly frightening that Americans of all stripes will start paying attention. If we do not trust and respect our institutions; we have no government.
As Sagan sets out early on, he is not an expert in any one topic here, but a jack of all trades. He serves as a bridge and synthesizer to the geniuses of their specialities and the rest of us. A must read. Some of the science is... dated, but on the whole his conjectures and larger narrative points are spot on
Another unbelievable book by Robert ven that I had already read Happiness NOW!, a lot of his ideas were already familiar to me. But these ideas are so necessary that they bear repeating, and so I don't think that reading this along with other works by Holden is in any method a waste of time. In fact, I think I got more out of this one because I had read it already, because his approach to success is very much based on his ideas about happiness. Basically, satisfied people are more naturally successful.While Happiness NOW! was more philosophical in nature, this one has a more practical outlook. It's filled with exercises and hints on how to search what success really means to you, and then taking action. It forces you to look at your fears and at your deeply conditioned thoughts and beliefs about success and all its similar elements.A book, by itself, will never change your life, just like by itself cannot create you happy. So unless you're willing to sit down with yourself and do the work, you probably won't reap all the benefits that this book can is book was well-structured, with dozens of examples from a dozens of sources like clients, seminars and other writers (including other psychologists, novelists, poets and philosophers). But, most of all, it's Holden's own deep belief in what he preaches that convinces me. You can feel his commitment to his topic through every word, and he doesn't seem like the hypocritical "do as I say, not as I do" chapter that especially touched me was the one about Cash Sickness. I was on the edge of tears throughout. But if you wish to know what he says about it... you'll have to read the book. I think that it should be read with an begin mind and a desire to become a better person.
I am only 3 chapters in and it is life-changing! My husband began reading it when I wasn’t reading it and I finally had to a second copy for him. It is making me re-think a lot about life, priorities and to do lists. Like insaid, I am only 3 chapters in and felt compelled to write a review. I can’t wait to read the rest.
This book includes all the info of the previous book "the dimensional ecology of the omniverse, plus possibly some fresh one. It is written in the same very cumbersome I search the idea a bit naive (based on two hypno-therapists) that ALL the aliens mean only amazing and that all abductions are done for our well-being, and are based on agreeements with our souls. Some maybe are. But then we also have to ask ourselves: how compromised are our souls, and WHO created our souls. Who compromised them? I suppose the the same beings who now play our rescuers. I am tryint to search a book who answers that.
The Obama material I found far fetched, I question some of the facts but I as a reader can't prove or disprove the authors material. The chapters on souls is very interesting. Believers will have fun this book, sceptics will question.
One of the late Carl Sagan’s hallmark qualities was to engage in speculation to a degree that was unusual for a rigorous scientist. While this sometimes resulted in largely unnecessary scorn and mockery from his fellow scientists, his honest skepticism combined with his open-mindedness also led to some of the most memorable famous science writing of our times. These qualities are on full display in this fascinating book, written in 1977 . Sagan tackles a subject that is far from his expertise – the evolution of human intelligence – and largely succeeds in presenting highly thought-provoking theses for us to ponder. Much of the book discusses what was then frontier research in neuroscience, but what makes it various are Sagan’s regular e book tries to create sense of two necessary facts about the human brain: our strikingly various cognitive abilities relative to other animals and the interplay between emotion and reason. Sagan is quite upbeat about chimp intelligence and he spends a sizable part of the book talking about experiments that reveal chimps’ prowess in using sign language. He also talks about the mysterious communication used by whales and dolphins that still defies comprehension. Clearly apes can come quite close to using the kind of easy vocabulary that humans do, so why are humans the only ones which actually crossed the language barrier, profiting from breakthrough linguistic inventions like recursive embedding and complex sentence construction? Sagan advances a chilling and all too likely hypothesis, that humans killed off apes who they thought came dangerously close to mimicking their linguistic capabilities. Given how closely language is tied to human intelligence, it then ensured that humans would be the dominant species on the planet; chimps, gorillas and orangutans were presumably saved because they lived deep inside the inaccessible jungle. Sagan’s discussion of animal intelligence hems uncomfortably close to ethical discussions about the killing of animals that are still so pertinent; what gives us the right to clearly assign personhood to a one-month-old fetus but not to a two-year-old chimpanzee, to have serious qualms about terminating the life of the former while cheerfully ending the life of the latter? Coming on the heels of this comparison is Sagan’s commonsense (in my opinion) take on abortion: he tries to reach a compromise by arguing that it should be unethical to slay a human fetus after it develops the first rudiments of a cerebral cortex, presumably the one thing that distinguished humanity from other species. Later work would probably cast some doubt on this assertion, since reptiles have also now been found to possess cortical is part provides a amazing segue into the even more interesting part of the book which with some fascinating speculations on the reptilian origins of human intelligence. Sagan’s fulcrum for this discussion is a theory by psychiatrist Paul McLean who divided the brain into three parts (the “triune brain”). At the top is the uniquely human cerebral cortex which controls thought, reason and language. The second layer is the limbic system containing structures like the amygdala which modulate emotions like anxiety. The limbic system also contains the basal ganglia and the R complex, an ancient, inherited assembly responsible for instinctive behavior, including responding to reward and punishment. Finally you have the “neural chassis” which just like a car’s chassis contains structures like the brain stem responsible for primary and primitive functions: breathing, blood flow and balance for gan’s focus is the R complex, part of the “reptilian brain”. It is quite clear that parts of this brain structure are found in reptiles. Reptiles and mammals have an ancient relationship; reptiles originated 500 million years before human beings, so we came into a globe that was full of hissing, crawling, terrestrial, arboreal and aquatic reptiles. As Sagan describes, it’s no surprise that a lot of of the world’s foremost civilizations and religions used reptiles as key symbols; from the snake in Eden to the worship of snakes in ancient Egypt to snake symbolism in modern day India, reptiles and human have shared an indelible bond. Reptiles have also often featured as omens in dreams dictating the fates of empires and societies. Some of our reptilian connections raise mundane but fascinating questions; for instance, Sagan wonders whether the shushing sound we create for communicating silence or disapproval is a leftover of the hissing sound of reptiles.But how does this relationship contribute to our behavior? It is here that the book takes off from firm ground and starts gently gliding on gan’s main springboard for investigating the R complex is Roger Sperry’s seminal work in delineating the separate roles of the left and right hemispheres of the brain. As Sperry demonstrated in awesome split-brain studies, the left brain is more logical and analytical while the right is more synthetic imaginative. Sagan’s contention is that the right brain is really the essence of our reptilian origins, helping us fantasize and imagine, and it’s also a key part of what makes us creative human beings. This is most prominent when we are dreaming. Message that dreams almost never contain info of issue solving, instead they feature highly imaginative scenarios, part familiar and part alien that seem to be largely driven by our fears and hopes: are we partly seeing the globe through our ancient reptilian neuroanatomy when we are dreaming, then? Are dreams holdovers from a prehistoric globe where, because of inadequate shelter and protection, we had to stay alert and awake during the night to engage with snakes and crocodiles on their own terms? And in the ensuing history of civilization, did reptilian anatomy contribute to our achievements in art and music? Sagan believes that we should encourage the operation of our reptilian brain, constantly tempering its excesses with the logical constraints of the left hemisphere. This distinction between right and left brain behavior also raises very interesting questions regarding whether we can suppress one or another temporarily using drugs and surgery. In fact, it’s likely that that is partly what hallucinogens like LSD do. Here we see Sagan the Renaissance Man, trying to bridge hard scientific thinking with artistic intuition.With its bold style and engaging language, “The Dragons of Eden” won a Pulitzer Prize. While I was aware of it, I always thought it would be too dated. I now realize that I was wrong and am glad I read it; it has given me plenty of fodder to think about and has prompted me to seek out fresh research on the topic. The book asks fascinating questions about our kinship with other monsters and about the evolution of our brain, subjects that will be of perpetual and consummate interest as long as our species is around.
I still have my 1977 original printing of this book and wanted to re-read it after 40 years. I purchased the hard-cover version, said to be first printed in 2009, as I expected the a lot of visuals to be easier to examine on a larger page than in the original 4"x7" format -- although I was surprised not to search some indication of the difference in page size. I just received the hard-cover book: it is exactly the same layout as the original, just with a hard cover. Poor surprise. With adequate information, I would not have created a purchase.
Having read Cosmos 5 stars and Contact 5 stars( see my reviews) by the popular astronomer/scientist Carl Sagan I had high hopes for The Dragons of Eden. I was not disappointed. Another amazing l tells us human brain evolution, brain anatomy and physiology are not his specialty field but he is going to tackle the topic and test to write so the layman can understand it. As usual he succeeds putting a complex topic down on paper for the less educated to be able to understand. He was a master at college I had a Paleontology course and did a paper on the evolution of the horse. I enjoyed the course and it may have helped me have fun this book l starts with a Cosmic year calender of the universe and we see man has only been on earth since Dec 31. We see amazing arguments by Carl on the agreement of the Origin of the Species by Charles Darwin and useful genetic info and survival traits passed to future generations as individuals with amazing traits survive and reproduce while others with less desirable traits die and their genetic info is not passed on. DNA and RNA are explained as well as easy organisms to more complex organisms. Much time is spend on the higher primates, hand structure, and tool using. Also the various parts of the brain are shown and how info is transferred to various parts of the brain. Cases of people with Epilepsy, brain injuries and brain operations are shown and how memory, thought and intelligence are affected. Brain size is shown in various organisms and degrees of intelligence is shown. Fascinating stuff.Eventually Carl gets down to ET life and contacting them and the use of smart machines. You can tell the amount of digital computers was very little when this book was written and some of what was presented is now outdated but Carl did say computer power and the amount of computers would increase drastically. Interesting Viking Mars spacecraft computing power is mentioned and we can see how outdated that computing power now y interesting pictures from around the globe as well as easy verses from amazing authors. A large bibliography is there for you to obtain more don't have to have a PHD in Paleontology or an MD on brain anatomy to have fun this book. The master Carl Sagan has again wrote this book so people can understand a difficult subject. Sadly in 1996 Carl Sagan passed away. The globe misses a amazing astronomer, scientist, writer and a amazing man. We never met and did not know one another. As an amateur astronomer of over 40 years I considered him my mate and had the utmost respect for e Dragons of Eden another amazing book by Carl Sagan. 5 stars
You don't obtain bored at any instance. With modesty, the author pours his knowledge onto the reader without using scientific recondite language. It'a a book written in the footprint of Darwin with occasional glimpse into myths. One with a penchant to science, reason and intellectual curiosity will appreciate this book. I don't agree with all his ideas like matter arranging by itself over time into us, complex smart beings. But it's a pity not to use your neocortex and this book will show such topics to meditate upon.
I loved this book! It’s a real and honest look at our American Culture. It tells us why so a lot of people are unfulfilled. It reminds us to look at what’s necessary . It then gives tip on how to search that. The author gives readers some of the deepest questions I have ever read. These questions should support steer readers to a path of most fulfillment.
This book blew my mind. So a lot of far-out things to consider. I consider myself well-read on the UFO/ET subject, but this book took my knowledge to another level. If you're looking for a book that provides even further evidence to demonstrate that what we already know about aliens is true, this is the book for you. I had never heard about Obama being involved in a secret Mars program! The book discusses a lot of things including types of ETs, the real ecology of the universe and just how vast it really is, time travel, souls and reincarnation, and of course exopolitics. I would recommend this to others who are interested in the topic. There is also a lengthy bibliography in the back which provides even more suggested reading for other ET similar books. This is a book I will keep.
This is one of the most poorly written books I have ever read in this field …….. and I have read most of them. It's a true shame because the material itself is beautiful interesting. But it is just not worth the effort of plowing through the turgid, redundant, and verbose prose filled with run-on sentences.
An eye opening insider's view of the death of truth and analytical fact based thinking in America in general and the Trump White house in particular. The extent to which Russian exploit of social media impacted the 2016 election is frightening and incontrovertible. The only think more scary is the willful ignorance of the President and those duped by their own shallow ignorance. The globe is a complex put where we need the expertise if the best and the brightest. Hayden shines as one of America's brightest most genuinely patriotic citizens. Unlike our current commander in chief who treats truth and facts as inconvenient irritants. Highly recommended.
No revealing info about current affairs. Decent critique of current administration from an intel perspective. The autobiographical undertones are often in defense of past actions by author and his peers.
We are in 1977, Sagan is guessing about the development of human intelligence. He is thrilled that our huge brains are speeding up development otherwise done by painstakingly slow natural selection. Remembering us that creativity and problem-solving are our special skills. I am writing this in 2018 (more than 50 years later) and there are tons books out there discussing latest explanations on the workings of the human brain. But Sagan is still very entertaining and original. For example, for him consciousness and intelligence are effect of "mere" matter sufficiently complexly arranged (his own words). Therefore, there is nothing stopping us from building smart machines. Just our own intelligence!
I'm studying the evolution of the mind, for a grad course project, and found a lot of interesting background information in this text. As was the habit in the '70s, the writer does assume his audience is well informed and so he doesn't always indicate where his evidence or research came from, which is frustrating if you wish to look is text combines anthro, bio, and history in such a method as to be quite persuasive. However, if you're just looking for a synthesis it's very simple to skip the in-depth terms for the skeleton and evolution without missing the bigger picture. I gave it 5 stars because it IS an academic text, but the ease of reading is amazing for the lay person.
This was a amazing find, a rollicking intelligence memoir of the First Globe War, ranging widely across Europe and touching on the Palestine Campaign just a bit. Those who aren't familiar with Military Intelligence are unlikely to have fun it as much as I did, but this one has it all - HUMINT, IMINT, SIGINT, PSYOP, BDA, D&D, and, of course, intelligence analysis - all retold in jovial Brit fashion. Every tale is a mini-case study, with its affects and influences on the battle directly told, implied, or sometimes just hinted at with a wink and a nudge. I enjoyed a few small things in particular, like the challenges of recording early SIGINT intercepts on phonograph cylinders and of PSYOP loudspeaker ops using gramophones. In a bit of self-contradiction, early in the book he rants for about two pages about how and why women are unsuitable for intelligence work, then proceeds to interject small vignettes throughout the book that demonstrate how they proved their value. In the section on interrogation, he covers in concise detail the cage in a major conflict, prisoner screening, and tactical interrogation - describing the need for detailed OB knowledge for effective interrogation and the how and why of breaking for spot reports along the way, again hinting at wars easily referenced. When he talks about interrogation methods for more in-depth technical interrogations, it is reflective of both Scharff's WWII era "The Interrogator" and Herrington's Vietnam memoir "Silence was a Weapon." Near the end, a bit of bitterness breaks through when he recounts how the British General Staff was hidebound in their ways and refused to recognize in the first few years of the battle how much early SIGINT and IMINT was compromising their positions and plans - with the resulting heavy loss of life. He states that intelligence tip and recommendations on deception versus those collection methods were rejected again and again by senior staff officers, while the Germans exploited such deception much earlier than the allies. All in all, I really enjoyed this one and highly recommend it to anyone with a Military Intelligence background.
Excellent. I reread Robert Holden's books and explore new insights. He is funny and profound. He gives practical exercises that the reader can use to explore fresh ways of thinking and viewing life. I highly recommend this book and his others, for people who wish deeper answers to finding meaning and joy in life.
If you are looking for success, you will search it but maybe not quite how you expected; well that was how it was for me.I also did a follow on course with Chris Morris which was also a true eye opener.
This is perfect work for this the negative reviewer, you must go study other works in this zone and confirm the research for is book assumes some knowledge in this zone on the part of the reader, otherwise it would am absolutely gut wrenching ly long book that would have spent too much time with the to those who are looking for something beyond the basics, and a truly revolutionary method of viewing life and a our time in it, I HIGHLY recommend this book.Kudos to Webre!!UPDATE:Read this book.I have read a lot of books, and have studied a lot of out there subjects for my entire life. These fields are valid as per my own experiences and the myriad of substantial and proven experiments and scientific research.What I love the most about this book is the fact that it is not another 'aliens exist and I can prove it'! Type of is book delves into what the existence of these beings, shadow gov, and secret projects actually mean to you and me; and what we can do personally and what to expect in the is is not doomsday, and I must admit, I had a hard time with that at first.I'm a bit pessimistic about the human race on my own, and their has been NOT ONE of the literally, and I mean literally, hundreds of books I have read that have convinced otherwise.I stand corrected.Quite a mind bender that...Thank you Mr. Webre.
"The Omniverse" by Alfred Lambremont Webre is a amazing exploration into the vast interlocking universes that we humans and other entities are embedded in. Thoughtful and entertaining, Mr. Webre takes readers on a mind-opening journey through the Amazing Cosmos and Mind at Huge - Russ Brinegar, paranormal researcher and author of "Overlords of the Singularity: The Manipulation of Humankind by Hidden UFO Intelligences and the Quest for Transcendence."
General Hayden has, with amazing clarity, laid out the facts and conclusions of the most risky threat to our republic. Never in my lifetime did I expect to see an attack on our most necessary institutions of justice and intelligence.What is most frightening is the blind eye some in Congress have turned to any corruption and crimes that this administration have is is an perfect book and I thank General Hayden for submitting this work to the ordinary American and to the future citizens of the United States who will seek to understand this dark chapter in our country's political system.
There really isn’t any fresh info here. I’m disappointed in this one the Generals other books are much better. This is more of a book to bash Trump and his administration. Much of what the General points out is now taking put (North Korea) and turning out much better then what the General points out.
Amazing reading, although it can tend to "ramble" in typical Carl Sagan fashion. This is an older book where the period writers wrote with orthodox precision; something I enjoy. If you like the sciences life, you will have fun this book.
I have read that other books such as "The Demon Haunted World" were written when Dr. Sagan was very ill, and therefore might not have been his best works. Well this was probably written around the zenith of his career, and most definitely reflects that. Every page is pure genius. If you are interested in science, the cosmos, or a fan of any other similar fields, he touches on a lot of various subjects in this book. It is an perfect companion to the Cosmos series (The old or the fresh with Dr. Tyson) and provides especially a unbelievable extrapolation of the original link between genes, brains, and books in the original Cosmos series. (Computers being the next link in the chain). I could write more...but just go read the book!
I think this book is incredibly revealing..It is not for the novice...The revelations are mind blowing and the uninformed or closed minded among us will certainly think it fiction...But my other research leads me to believe that it is factual...Yet it is incredibly eye opening and further enhances my belief that the human race is being lied to so egregiously and the need for revelations and truthfulness from our government and the media is sorely needed..Once the floodgates are opened there will be a whole fresh globe of awesome progress and happiness for a planet sorely in need of restructuring..Those of openminded and informed will delight in this book
This book is a valued part on my extensive on-going investigation on the validity ofeverything we were not taught in school. This globe is a total lie, planned eons agoby the sick-o elite to hold everyone dumbed down and stupid for their total ank you Alfred, for this stunning work.