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The Bio-evidence of Extinctions is written in the rocks not only in plants and animals, but also at the Micro-Organism levels. The Chemistry in the rocks tell a strong tale of these extinctions. This book does an perfect job of the Micro-Organism level of extinction along with the Chemistry in the rocks tales of extinctions. The book is small too complicated for the layman. But it tells a amazing story of the evidences indicates possible causes of extinctions. In regards to the cause of these extinctions, the cirtantial evidence of volcanic and asteroid or comet impacts is very compelling in a court case I would search them all guilty.
Paul Wignall did an outstanding job in this book bringing us up-to-date on mass extinctions with his encyclopedic knowledge. His emphasis on the linkage between mass extinctions and supercontinent existence is also shared by another theory, the Gravity Theory of Mass Extinction (GTME). The GTME can resolve a lot of of the apparently contradictory problems raised in this r example, on page 149, the point is created that the Karoo-Ferrar eruptions seem to have begun 200k years after the 2nd Extinction and the timing mismatch is also seen for the Emeishan Traps, Siberian Traps and CAMP eruptions. This time lag, if accurate, indicates that the volcanism was not the basic factor responsible for the corresponding iefly, the GTME posits that the Earth’s core elements (inner and outer cores and the densest part of the lower mantle) can and have moved off-center when the center of mass (COM) of the total continental mass moves to a higher latitude from the equator. This movement occurred when Pangea formed. Pangea’s COM moved significantly below and above the equator during the latest 300 my (per Plate tectonics may control geomagnetic reversal frequency by Petrelis, Besse and Valet, 2011). This latitudinal movement shifted the core elements away from Pangea, based upon the Law of Conservation of Angular Momentum, reducing surface gravity on Pangea and increasing it antipodally within the Panthalassa Ocean. This is why some fauna, particularly dinosaurs, reached immense proportions.When Pangea’s COM moved to lower latitudes the core elements moved back toward Earth-centricity increasing surface gravity on Pangea and causing extinction. This retrograde core movement initiated the flow of lava plumes at the core/mantle boundary which would take hundreds of thousands of years to reach the surface. This is why all of the mass extinctions initially start a considerable time before the corresponding flood basalt eruptions occur, as noted on page 149. This also answers the question of why the most heavy flood basalt eruptions occur when supercontinents exist. However, this also applies to the period prior to 300mya because the same principle applies, for example, when there are 2 supercontinents such as Gondwana and Laurasia. Even after Pangea started breaking apart, the net latitudinal, continental movement was sufficient to move the core elements initiating the Deccan Traps and the e core element movement away from Pangea also caused higher sea level around the supercontinent due to lower surface gravity there. During the retrograde core movement as surface gravity increased on Pangea, sea levels fell as it did in all the other mass extinctions. The lower sea level, warm water and still relatively low surface gravity caused the disassociation of methane from the hydrates at the bottom of the sea. Note that the lower surface gravity decreases the density of the sea water and thereby reduces its pressure per unit of depth. The combination of warm water and lower water pressure released the methane. This is why episodes of carbon isotope excursions accompany mass extinctions and why benthic life forms are severely affected even before the thermogenic gas release from volcanic eruptions occurs. Therefore, their demise is from methane caused anoxia, not from carbon dioxide from volcanism, at least initially. The delayed volcanism did exacerbate these conditions extending the extinctions.When surface gravity increased on Pangea marine life forms that had shells or skeletons, including conodonts which had teeth, were negatively affected because the increase in water pressure per unit depth in the water column, as mentioned above, limited their vertical movement. Therefore, during mass extinctions benthic life forms are negatively affected by the release of methane and those that moved vertically in the water column are negatively affected by the surface gravity increase which causes a water pressure increase per unit e GTME explains the extinction of the crurotarsan archosaurs at the end of the Triassic (page 114) as being the effect of their sprawling and ar-erect posture when surface gravity increased allowing the dinosaurs, which had an erect posture related to mammals, to flourish.I strongly recommend this book for all who are interested in the wonderful journey of this planet that created human life possible today.
This is a quick, funny read and all the same totally disturbing... and somewhat normal. Simmons info the extreme ver of what every country does: place its best and most patriotic foot forward in front of foreigners. North Korea certainly takes it to extremes. It's eerie how "a large swarm of people – usually hundreds" arrive on command for football android games and other "activities." Everything is staged! Simmons's quips (read: "Driver nearly knocked New Handler over for the girlie [pair of sunglasses]) throughout the book hold the dark topic matter light. As her pseudo-relationships with Older Handler, New Handler and Driver unfold and come unraveled into truth at the end, the reader hangs on every word. How CAN an entire country be so robotic? I loved it straight through the end and fully felt the writer's pain: "...I could never stop wondering what kind of people my handlers could or would have been had they been born anywhere else. Or the person I might be had I been born there."
The author has a funny and insightful method of describing her time in North Korea. However her aim is not to poke fun at North Korea but to understand why things are the method they are. North Korea is definitely not a put I ever plan on visiting!
Not exactly dramatic, but e author covers, briefly, the 5 other mass extinctions in Earth's history but concentrates on the Permian event.If you have NO knowledge of the geology of ancient Earth and small knowledge of chemistry or palentology then skip this book. It will just confuse the snot out of e author, out of necessity, uses scientific terms for most of his indicator species which almost no one (including me) will ever have heard of.What this book will give you is perfect insight into how the greenhouse result works, the CO2 cycle in the rocks and oceans, and how time and nature gradually fix out of balance environments.
A very educational look and simple to read book on a country most of us have no inkling on. I was shocked, surprised and in awe of of Wendy traveling by herself to such a place. After all that is event in this world, I decided to take a look. A lot of of us have no idea people live like this,and people I have talked to never heard of having handlers to be able to see a country. She told the story with humor but not meanness of the people who lived there, as that is all they know with no method out. Loved her style.
It's an simple read, for sure. Much of what the author describes overlaps with other accounts I've seen and read from outsiders who have visited North Korea. There is some fresh (to me) info within as well, like the visit to the "spa" (which sounded incredibly depressing) and (probably most important) the citizens of North Korea letting their guard down in even the smallest ways, even among all the theatrics. (Guards sleeping on duty? Uh oh!)I deducted a star because I did search the author's writing style a bit irksome at times. For instance, I understand the ease in using a shorthand (NoKo), but it seems more befitting of a trendy neighborhood or restaurant (or neighborhood restaurant) than a hermit country that is threatening nuclear war. YMMV on this quibble, however.
Wendy Simmons went to North Korea alone and for ten days! And she lived to tell about it. I felt like I was reading about Stalinist Russia where the people starved while the leaders lived in incomprehensible corruption and luxury and built obscene monuments to themselves. I feel the globe is a lot sadder put with this scar of painful humanity festering right under our noses. Told with heart, humor, and emotional intelligence.
The reader need not be deterred by the cascade of info crammed into 176 pages of text. The basics are well-delineated in Wignall's contention that a raft of deleterious effects were instigated by incredibly large flood basalt eruptions occurring at the end-Permian and end-Triassic as the supercontinent Pangea broke up. The resulting gargantuan amount of C02 released by the eruptions themselves and more CO2 from continental erosion led to anoxia in the oceans, the disruption of the carbon dioxide cycle, acidification of the oceans, the melting of methane hydrates and a host of other poor effects.What I like about this book is that the author talks about the destruction of flora AND fauna. While a lot of his concentration is on foraminifera and planktonic life forms, he discusses affected populations of land animals, trees, and amazing swathes of sea life -- from fish to ammonoids to crinoids. There are no lumbering dinosaurs of course as they came into their own in the Jurassic and the Cretaceou, but he does contain primitive forms of dinosaurian and mammalian e carbon cycle can be somewhat difficult to follow but Wignall does his best to create it understandable. I also appreciated the descriptions of pulses of extinction coming just before, in geologic time, the disasters that created life almost impossible at the end of the Permian and Triassic ages. Readers of a philosophic bent will have a lot to ponder on the resilience of life and may even be sorrowful about the eradication of so a lot of forms of life during this period of Earth cluded are an perfect index, references for further reading, and a nice selection of helpful and sometimes attractive photographic plates. A fascinating read.
A surprisingly thin book regarding the different cataclysms that the earth has endured and has resulted in the heavy extinction of animal species through millions of year. Although some of the parts were technical, Wignall makes an effort at explaining the importance of the scientific info so that you understand them even though they may be outside your field of expertise. Although he interjects some jarring humor here and there, at times the reading becomes a bit dry, which I'm sure was because some of the info was outside my training. Furthermore, there is a lot of info of which I was not aware of, e.g., i always thought of the Permian extinction being a one time event, whereas it turns out that it was a one-two knock out punch.
The book starts out well with predictable direction: why she picked to go to North Korea and what she saw there and heard from her handler. As a reader, I felt her isolation and frustration due to her handlers being an impenetrable wall. She was stuck there for 9 days. Her use of the word, fuxx, was a small disturbing, but I probably could not describe my feelings without it either.
Clean,clear and thorough layout of those "End times".Well depicted, amazing data and a clear rendition of whatended an era of unbelievable experimentation in life forms.While the K/T happening generally attracts greater noticethis depiction of the P/T happenings is a true geological thrillerthat almost literally paved the method for Dinosaurs, et cely done and a thourougly laid out summary of howpaleontologists draw pictures from the rocks they peruse.
This is a happy/sad book. It is quite entertaining, but at the same time sad because it shows how amazingly dysfunctional North Korean society seems to be. A lot of fun to read, but if you are looking for something to read to lift your spirits on a cold gray day, you may wish to pick another book.
The subtitle not withstanding, the book is about how heavy volcanic action led to devastating world-wide extinctions on several occasions during the late Permian and early Triassic world. In mystery terms, Wignall is discussing the how, not the who, which is not much at problem in the scientific community. In the final chapter, Wignall can then explain why the subsequent heavy volcanic eruptions were not so devastating in terms of the number of animal groups lost and the geography of the losses. While there were volcanic eruptions which impacted the dinosaurs, Wignall endorses a growing consensus that it was the asteroid which hit show day Mexico that caused their extinction. Wignall concentrates on marine animals. The how is ocean acidification and an anoxia (oxygen deficiency/loss) which impacted even the ocean depths. High temperature was a secondary contributor. Acidification alone, especially at the levels projected by contemporary climate scientists, would be deleterious and wipe out groups such as the corals, but would not effect in a mass extinction. What was various in later, less severe extinctions: the breakup of the heavy super continent of Pangea, and to a lesser extent a fresh group of bicarbonate utilizing marine animals. These two factors enabled the earth to more quickly restore a carbon equilibrium at lower, life sustaining levels. With the continental breakup there were more continental shelves, home to fauna critical to the proper functioning of the carbon cycle, and there was more rainfall on land, which meant more rock erosion, and therefore more creation of bicarbonate ions flowing into oceans, lakes and swamps; there were also more lakes and swamps as the interior of Pangea, far from the ocean, was very dry. Rainfall on the ocean also takes carbon out of the air, in the form of carbonic acid, but this does not contribute to long term burial of the carbon. (Wignall never states this so explicitly and my conclusion is based on Wikipedia as well as the book – the animals need the presence of dissolved bicarbonate ions not carbonic acid to turn carbon into shells and skeletons that then are buried and eventually become limestone and fossil fuels). At several points in the book Wignall seems to say that the mechanisms of extinction on land were destruction of the ozone layer abetted by very high temperatures. Reading the latest chapter, he apparently does not feel as confident about this conclusion as about the conclusions pertaining to marine animals, possibly in part because of his life-long research interests. Wignall sometimes goes into levels of detail that created me skim a bit, but I never really minded. I was carried along by his enthusiasm for gathering enough clues to reach his conclusions. I did print out a chart on geological eras from Wikipedia to hold things straight. Wignall is somewhat capricious as to when to provide more primary explanations of the science. Still, this is a very interesting book of science from a practitioner who writes well.
This book gets a small preachy at times but it provides a readable perspective about the calamitous times when life was just getting started on Earth; it's a real wonder that "we" survived all that the young Earth had to endure!
This is my first exposure to the Shaver family. Bought the record on the strength of a mates recommendation, and loved it. I am not a country fan; I don't really care for a lot of that, just not my taste. Although I would naively call this a country record, at the end of the day it is so much more. I won't bore you with my track by track ysis, suffice to say that there is a lot of life in these songs, pathos, humor, everything. Don't be a stooge, obtain this disk.
Tragically, Eddie Shaver passed away soon after this cd was completed. He was just too damn young. He left us with a legacy though. Here, he and dad Billy Joe rock one final time with one hell of a country rock album. Billy Joe's songwriting is legendary enough, but he seemed to really obtain to the heart of some touchy topics here and turn it up a notch. Especially cool is him and Eddie going back and forth on "Blood is thicker than water." Some very honest and nasty lyrics. I can't support but feel for B.J. as on the back of the disc, there's a picture of him putting his hand in a window; as if he's reaching out for Eddie. I like all Shaver cd's, but this ranks as one of the best for sure.
Been a fan of Billy Joe when I first heard Waylon do Honky Tonk Heroes in the 70's and that started a long lasting taste for his music.He is one of my all time favourite song writers and I purchase all his studio albums as I see them. This is as usual a very amazing album It's true country so I won't test to convince Billy Joe fans but recommend it to other listeners this man is country
What's not to love here? Billy Joe Shaver's life has been a country song-a country song filled with tragedy. His own son died of a overdose before the album was released, and his wife, (married her twice), was suffering with cancer while he was making the e melody is more rock than country; the lyrics are more country than rock, and it makes for an interesting, fun, and lively set of songs. It feels upbeat, even if you know Billy Joe's heart is split in two-just listen to the lyrics. Except the opening song gives you the respond on how he keeps on keeping on- "Love is so sweet/makes you bounce when you walk down the street." It's also a powerful song, and quite a statement to begin the cd is is a man who can write about deadly serious subjects without taking himself too seriously. It's a fine line to walk, and he does it here to perfection. Mr. Shaver is a genius songwriter. Too poor he's barely known outside of Texas. Hey-I'm telling you now, so don't say you didn't know. Buy this so you can obtain to know Billy Joe Shaver. You won't regret it-he's worth your time and money.
I have a sinking feeling that this CD is not for everybody, but I like it so much I [email protected]#$%! could be. This is a mixed up stew of hard rock and outlaw-country, almost as if Waylon Jennings had recorded with Lynyrd Skynyrd. But Shaver stands apart, and this is no 70s throwback. "The Earth Rolls On" is also a father-son melding of Jennings-generation singer-songwriter Billy Joe Shaver and his rock guitarist son. (In fact, Waylon recorded a lot of songs by Billy Joe.) This is also an album marked by two tragedies. Billy Joe's wife (Eddie's mother) died shortly before the album was created - a fact that influenced at least two songs on the album, the title song "The Earth Rolls On" (#14) and "Blood is Thicker Than Water" (#8). The latter song, sung by both men, is primarily about the father-son relationship (in both the earthly and Christian senses). Then tragedy struck again - Eddie died before the album was released. (I'm not sure how - neither the liner notes nor the web website say). Listening to Eddies' solos on two of the best songs here, "Evergreen Fields" (#2) and "The Earth Rolls On" (#14), one gets the sense he went out in flames (figuratively speaking). My other favorite is "Love is So Sweet" (#1). If you've never heard Billy Joe Shaver before (as I hadn't), he introduces himself in the opening lines of this first song, an upbeat rocker: "I've been around for a long time, Mister, I've got a thing or two to say...I've been a drifter and a low-life loser, you could learn a lot from me...Love is So Sweet, it makes you bounce when you walk down the street." You may react, as I did, with an instant "I like this guy!"
This is an album about survival, about staring the grim reaper in maw and flipping him the bird. Seriously, though, the testament to the toughness of this record is the upbeat first tune "love is so sweet" in which the singer meditates on a hard and traveling life and comes away with the most necessary bit of wisdom being "Love is so sweet/It makes you bounce as you walk down the street". "evergreen fields" is simply gorgeous-- sripped-bare rumination on mortality and being without roots ("no harvest awaits me"). There are plenty of upbeat tunes, and the album generally chugs along with the sound and fury of a runaway locomotive. The late Eddy Shaver's searing guitar licks sound like one man's private sonic battle versus his demons. He bottom-feeds from the blues and soars into uncharted country territory. Eddy, we hardly knew ye... My favorite track is the stubbornly unsentimental "I don't seem to fit anywhere" wherein the singer grapples with his own nomadic existence. All together, a stunning and defiant masterpiece of the first order, and probably the greatest record any of the Shavers has yet produced.
As weather apps go it passes. Actually you'd obtain a better rating if we could save some of our places, so we don't have to hold typing them in all the time. That's down right annoying. If Weather Bug covered the world I wouldn't even bother getting another app.